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New Horizon College English. Unit 8 : Section A. Slavery Gave Me Nothing to Lose. 新 视 野. Pre-reading Activities. Text Analysis. Main idea and Structure. Expressions & Patterns. Summary. How to apply to our real life the typical expressions and patterns taken from the text.

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New Horizon College English

Unit 8 : Section A

Slavery Gave

Me Nothing to Lose

新视野


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Pre-reading Activities

Text Analysis

Main idea and Structure

Expressions & Patterns

Summary

How to apply to our real life the typical expressions and patterns taken from the text

Blank filling

Exercises

Writing

All the exercises

for Section A

议论文与说明文写作技巧


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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

New Words & Text

Main Idea & Structure

Main Idea

New Words

Structure

Text

Main Idea of Each Part

Part Ⅰ

Part Ⅱ

Part Ⅲ


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New Words

Back

  • give of (one’s money,

  • time etc.)

  • disapprove of

  • belong to

  • at one’s elbow

  • pay a/the price for sth.

  • in the main

  • prop up

  • in company with

  • more or less

  • New Words

  • prop

  • Phrases and

  • Expressions

  • up to

  • peer at

  • in passing

  • break off

  • in that

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New Words

Back

  • Proper Names

  • Eatonville

  • Orlando

  • Zora Neale Hurston

  • Jacksonville

  • the Civil War

  • the Great Stuffer of Bags

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Text

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Slavery Gave Me Nothing to Lose

Para. 1a I remember the very day that I became black. Up to my thirteenth year I lived in the little Negro town of Eatonville, Florida. It is exclusively a black town. The only white people I knew passed through the town going to or coming from Orlando, Florida. The native whites rode dusty horses, and the northern tourists traveled down the sandy village road in automobiles.

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Para. 1bThe town knew the Southerners and never stopped chewing sugar cane when they passed. But the Northerners were something else again. They were peered at cautiously from behind curtains by the timid. The bold would come outside to watch them go past and got just as much pleasure out of the tourists as the tourists got out of the village.

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Para. 2a The front deck might seem a frightening place for the rest of the town, but it was a front row seat for me. My favorite place was on top of the gatepost. Not only did I enjoy the show, but I didn’t mind the actors knowing that I liked it. I usually spoke to them inpassing. I’d wave at them and when they returned my wave, I would say a few words of greeting.

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Para. 2b Usually the automobile or the horse paused at this, and after a strange exchange of greetings, I would probably “go a piece of the way” with them, as we say in farthest Florida, and follow them down the road a bit. If one of my family happened to come to the front of the housein time to see me,of course the conversation would be rudely brokenoff.

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Para. 3 During this period, white people differed from black to me only inthat they rode through town and never lived there. They liked to hear me “speak pieces” and sing and wanted to see me dance, and gave me generously oftheir small silver for doing these things, which seemed strange to me for I wanted to do them so much that I needed bribing to stop. Only they didn’t know it. The colored people gave no coins. They disapprovedof any joyful tendencies in me, but I was their Zora nevertheless. I belongedto them, to the nearby hotels, to the country — everybody’s Zora.

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Para. 4But changes came to the family when I was thirteen, and I was sent to school in Jacksonville. I left Eatonville as Zora. When I got off the riverboat at Jacksonville, she was no more. It seemed that I had suffered a huge change. I was not Zora of Eatonville any more; I was now a little black girl. I found it out in certain ways. In my heart as well as in the mirror, I became a permanent brown—like the best shoe polish, guaranteed not to rub nor run.

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Para. 5a Someone is always at my elbow reminding me that I am the granddaughter of slaves. It fails to register depression with me. Slavery is something sixty years in the past. The operation was successful and the patient is doing well, thank you. The terrible war that made me an American instead of a slave said “On the line!” The period following the Civil War said “Get set!”; and the generation before me said “Go!” Like a foot race, I am off to a flying start and I must not halt in the middle to look behind and weep.

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Para. 5bSlavery is the price I paid for civilization, and the choice was not with me. No one on earth ever had a greater chance for glory. The world to be won and nothing to be lost. It is thrilling to think, to know, that for any act of mine, I shall get twice as much praise or twice as much blame. It is quite exciting to hold the center of the national stage, with the audience not knowing whether to laugh or to weep.

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Para. 6 I do not always feel colored. Even now I often achieve the unconscious Zora of that small village, Eatonville. For instance, I can sit in a restaurant with a white person. We enter chatting about any little things that we have in common and the white man would sit calmly in his seat, listening to me with interest.

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Para. 7a At certain times I have no race, I am me. Butin the main, I feel like a brown bag of mixed itemspropped upagainst a wall. Against a wall in company with other bags, white, red and yellow. Pour out the contents, and there is discovered a pile of small things both valuable and worthless. Bits of broken glass, lengths of string, a key to a door long since decayed away, a rusty knife-blade, old shoes saved for a road that never was and never will be, a nail bent under the weight of things too heavy for any nail, a dried flower or two still with a little smell.

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Para. 7bIn your hand is the brown bag. On the ground before you is the pile it held—so much like the piles in the other bags, could they be emptied, that all might be combined and mixed in a single heap and the bags refilled without altering the content of any greatly. A bit of colored glass more or less would not matter. Perhaps that is how the Great Stuffer of Bags filled them in the first place—who knows?  

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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

What is the text mainly about?

Back

When I was young living in the Negro town of Eatonville, I enjoyed watching and contacting the white people. To me, the difference between black and white was that the white rode through town and never lived there. When I moved to a school in Jacksonville, I was taken as a black girl. It didn’t depress me, though. Rather, I regarded as an advantage the history that my forefathers had been slaves. In my view, people of different colors are just the differently colored bags with almost the same contents in them.


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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

How is the text organized?

For details

Back

The passage is divided into three parts. In the first part, the author makes it clear that Zora, as a little black girl, didn’t feel any difference from the white. The second part serves as a transitional part, relating that Zora was made to realize that she was a black girl. The third part comes to the argument that the knowledge of being a black girl didn’t depress Zora, and she was not always conscious of her color.

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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

Back

Part 1 (Paras. 1-3)

I didn’t feel the difference between the black and the white when I was a little girl.

Part 2 (Para. 4)

A transitional paragraph. I was made to realize that I was a little black girl .

Part 3 (Paras. 5-7)

My family background of having slave forefathers and my color didn’t give me the feeling of being inferior to the white.


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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

Part I

(Paras. 1-2)

Part II

Part III

For details

Back

Main idea?

When I was a little girl, I enjoyed making some contacts with the white, and didn’t see any difference between black and white except that the white rode through town and never lived there.

Devices for developing it?

Specific-general (分—总法)


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For details

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A general statement:

Though I was a black, I did not feel any difference between the black and the white.

The only difference I felt about the white was that ______________________________ _________. They liked ___________________ ____________________________, and then they gave me a bit of money.

  • My impressions of the white as a child:

  • The white people were just tourists passing through my little town ________________________.

  • We just ____________ and got just as much pleasure out of them ___________________ _______.

  • Details about how I responded to the white as a

  • child:

  • I enjoyed _____________________________ and

  • saying a few words of ______________. Sometimes

  • I would follow them down the road a bit.

“Specific—general” techniqueis employed in the whole part from Para. 1 to Para. 3. This makes a good development of text: the author presents her personal experience with the white first, and then comes to a natural conclusion that white people differed from black only in that they rode through town and never lived there.

on horses or in automobiles

watched them

as they got out of the village

they rode through town and never lived there

to hear me speak and sing and wanted to see me dance

watching and waving at the white

greeting to them

返回


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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

Part I

Part II

(Para. 3-4)

Part III

For details

Back

Main idea?

It was when I was thirteen that I found out in my heart as well as in the mirror that I was a little black girl.

Devices for developing it?

Cause and effect (因果法)


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For details

Back

Cause: But changes came to the family when I was thirteen, and I was sent to school in Jacksonville. I left Eatonville as Zora. When I got off the riverboat at Jacksonville, she was no more.

Effect: It seemed that I __________________ ______. I was not Zora of Eatonville any more; I ______________________. I found it out in certain ways. _________________________ ______, I became a permanent brown—like the best shoe polish, ___________ not to rub nor run.

This part adopts the writing technique of cause and effect, which works very well to inform readers of how I felt the changes in myself.

had suffered a huge change

was now a little black girl

In my heart as well as in the mirror

guaranteed

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II. Text Analysis: Main Idea and Structure

Part I

Part II

Part III

(Para. 5-9)

For details

For details

Back

Main idea?

Now as an adult, I don’t think that being the granddaughter of slaves has negative effect on me. I don’t always feel colored, and in the main I believe different races are just bags of different colors which are filled with almost the same contents.

Devices for developing it?

General-specific (总分法)

Description (描写法)


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Back

For details

  • General statement:

  • It fails to register depression with me.

  • Specific reasons:

  • Slavery is something sixty years in the past.

  • No one on earth ever had a greater chance for glory. The world to be won and nothing to be lost.

  • It is thrilling to think, to know, that for any act of mine, I shall get twice as much praise or twice as much blame. It is quite exciting to hold the center of the national stage…

This part can be further put into two subdivisions. Para. 5 is the first one, dealing with my family root of slaves. Para. 6 and 7 form the second one, concerning my race as black. In Para. 5, the writing technique, “general-specific”, is employed.

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For details

Back

The author compares herself, or all the black, to a brown bag of mixed items. (L. 50)

People of other colors are compared to white, red and yellow bags. (L. 51)

The racial differences are compared to the contents of bags with different colors, piles of small things both valuable and worthless. (L. 52-55)

The sameness of races is compared to bags refilled with items from a single heap without altering the contents of any greatly. (L. 56-59)

In paragraph 7, for the purpose of furthering the problem of race, the author makes a vivid description of her insight into race, with the rhetoric device of simile running through.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

B. Patterns for you to use as models

A. Expressions

  • to be sth. else again

  • to peer at

  • to get pleasure out of sth.

  • to be a front row seat for sb.

  • in passing

  • in time to do sth.

  • to give sb. generously of sth.>more

  • Typical patterns for describing the coincidence

  • Typical patterns for furnishing reasons

  • Typical patterns for revealing the flow of one’s thinking

  • >more


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III.Expressions & Patterns

Back

  • the price one pays for...

  • to hold the center of the national stage

  • in the main

  • to prop up

  • in company with

  • to be bent under the weight of sth. on

  • to suffer a huge change

  • at one’s elbow

  • to register depression with sb.

  • on the line

  • to be off to a flying start


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III.Expressions & Patterns

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1. 又是另一回事

  • to be something else again /another thing (L. 6)

活学活用

卖嘴是一回事,实干又是另一回事。

While lip-service is something/one thing, solid work is quite something else again/another thing.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

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2. 凝视;仔细看

  • to peer at/into/through (L. 6)

活学活用

司机在雾中费力地看着前方,想要看清路标。

The driver was peering into the distance through the mist, trying to read the road sign.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

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3. 从······中获得乐趣

  • to get pleasure out of sth. (L. 8)

活学活用

对于喜爱冒险的人来说,最大的乐趣来自于诸如攀岩、蹦极、特技跳伞等冒险活动。

To those who enjoy risks, the greatest pleasure is obtained out of such adventures as rock climbing, bungee jumping and skydiving.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

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4. 对某人来说就像前排座位一样

  • to be a front row seat for sb. (L. 9)

活学活用

在火星上工作的探测器使科学家们可以清晰地观察这个星球。那里可能或曾经存在支持生命的水。

The probe at work on the Mars is a front row seat for scientists who can make clear inspection into the planet where life-sustaining water may exist or have existed.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

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5. 顺便;附带地

  • in passing (L. 11)

活学活用

尽管他不是靠盗窃为生,但他经常干些顺手牵羊的事。

Although he does not make a living by stealing, he often takes something in passing.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

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6. 正好赶上做某事

  • (just) in time to do sth. (L. 16)

活学活用

在许多好莱坞大片的末尾,人们总能及时设法消除致命性的灾难,使人类免遭灭顶之灾。

At the end of many Hollywood blockbusters, a solution to a fatal disaster is always worked out just in time to save mankind from termination.

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III.Expressions & Patterns

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7. 慷慨地把某物给某人

  • to give sb. generously of sth. (L. 23)

活学活用

宽以待人者不仅能赢得他人的友谊,还会得到他人的关爱。

Those giving other people of their patience and tolerance can win love and care as well as friendship of others.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

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8. 遭遇了巨大的变化/损失/痛苦

  • to suffer a huge change/loss/pain (L. 33)

活学活用

经历过人生大起大落变化的人对生活之道会有更深刻的见解。

Those who have suffered huge changes in life have a deeper insight into the art of living.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

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9. 在(某人)手边/近旁

  • to be at one’s elbow (L. 35)

活学活用

挚友不一定与你朝夕相处,但他的关爱总是与你同在。

A bosom friend is not always at your elbow, but his care and love for you are.

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10. 使某人沮丧/吃惊/兴奋

  • to register depression/surprise/excitement with sb. (L. 36)

活学活用

人要学会控制情绪,做到不以物喜,不以己悲。

One should learn to keep his emotion under such control that external gains can’t register thrill with him and personal losses can’t register sorrow with him, either.

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11. 各就各位; 骑墙; 冒险; 在分界线上

  • on the line (L. 38)

活学活用

由于利欲熏心,有些官员常常拿自己的政治生涯冒险。

Driven by their greed for money, some officials often put their political careers on the line.

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12. 飞速起跑/取得良好(不利)的开端

  • to be off to a flying start/to get off to a good (bad) start (L. 39)

活学活用

良好的开端,是成功的一半。

Anything is half done that gets off to a good start.

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13. 为······所付的代价

  • the price one pays for… (L. 40)

活学活用

环境恶化是人类在征服大自然过程中为自己的急功近利所付出的代价。

Environmental deterioration is the price man has paid for his eagerness for instant success and quick profits in conquering nature.

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14. 占据国内舞台的中心

  • to hold the center of the national stage (L. 44)

活学活用

京剧不再像以前一样占据国内舞台的中心了。

Peking Opera no longer holds the center of the national stage as it once did.

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15. 基本上;大体上

  • in the main/on the whole/in general (L. 50)

活学活用

It is in the main true that man’s nature at birth is good. But the differences in education, living environment and personal experiences make the distinction between good people and evil people.

大体上来说,人之初,性本善的说法没错。但是,后天教育、生活环境、个人经历的不同使人有了好坏之分。

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16. 支撑; 支持; 维持

  • to prop up (L. 51)

活学活用

靠物质利益维系的友谊是不可能长久的。

The friendship propped up with material benefits finds no way to last.

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17. 与······一起

  • in company with (L. 51)

活学活用

透过现象看本质,就可以发现腐败总是与缺乏制约的权力共生。

By seeing through the appearance to perceive the essence, we can find that corruption always exists in company with power under inadequate control.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

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18. 被······的重量压弯

  • to be bent under the weight/pressure of...

    (L. 55)

活学活用

这棵大树被昨夜的这场暴雪压弯了腰。

The big tree is bent under the weight of the heavy snow last night.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

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1. Typical patterns for describing the coincidence:

原句:If one of my family happened to come to the front of the house in time to see me, of course the conversation wouldbe rudely brokenoff.(L. 15)

如果正赶上家里人碰巧来到房前见到我,他们当然就会毫不客气地打断我们的交谈。

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III. Expressions & Patterns

句型提炼

If sb./sth. happens to… in time to…, sb./ sth. (else) will/would…如果某人/某事碰巧······从而······,(别)某人/事就会······

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III. Expressions & Patterns

应用:a.如果她碰巧回家看到她的儿子在网上聊天,我们真不知她会作何反应。

If she happens to come home to see her son chatting online, we have no idea about what response she would make to it.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

应用:b. 如果你碰巧逛商店从而看见一小偷在作案,你是当场抓住他, 还是睁只眼闭只眼?

If you happen to go window-shopping in time to see a thief committing a crime, would you catch him red-handed or turn a blind eye to it?

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2. Typical patterns for furnishing reasons:

原句: During this period, white people differed from black to me only inthat they rode through town and never lived there. (L. 19)

那段日子里,在我看来,白人和黑人的不同只不过是他们路过镇上,但从不住在镇上。

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句型提炼

Sb./Sth. does…/is…(only) in that/for the reason that… 某人做······/是······, 其 (唯一) 原因在于······

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III. Expressions & Patterns

应用:a. 在处理棘手问题时,理智者与不理智者唯一的不同在于前者的自制力略占上风,也正是这多出来的一点自制力真正起了作用。

When handling sticky problems, the reasonable differ from the unreasonable only in that the former have one ounce more of control, which is what really counts.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

应用:b. 这位女护士之所以深受人民仰慕,就在于她用自己的生命从歹徒的利斧下挽救了63名儿童。

The female nurse commands deep admiration among the people in that she saved 63 children from under an attacker’s sharp axe at the cost of her own life.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

3. Typical patterns for revealing the flow of one’s thinking:

原句: At certain timesI have no race, I am me. But in the main, I feel like a brown bag of mixed items propped up against a wall. (L. 50)

有时候我不属于任何人种,我就是我自己。但我大体上还是感觉自己像一只靠墙立着装满各种杂物的棕色皮袋子。

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III. Expressions & Patterns

句型提炼

At certain times/In one’s heart, one aspires/ desires/longs to do sth./be sth.. But in the main/in one’s head, one feels like…/feels a need to…有时候/从内心讲,某人渴望做某事/成为······,但从整体上讲/在脑海里, 某人感到自己像······/感到有必要······

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III. Expressions & Patterns

应用:a. 有时候,我也渴望纵情地生活,尽情享受现代生活带来的一切快乐。但从整体上讲,我还是感到自己是一个清心寡欲的人。

At certain times, I also aspire to live with abandon, enjoying to the fullest every pleasure modern life brings about. But in the main, I feel like a person who controls his passions and has few desires.

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III. Expressions & Patterns

应用:b. 从我内心里讲,我渴望像百合花那样无忧无虑地生活。但在我脑海里我还是觉得有必要为家庭、为社会、为民族担负起自己的责任。这也正是我所有的牵挂。

In my heart, I desire to be like lilies, living a care-free life. But in my head, I feel a need to bear my responsibility for my family, my society and my nation, which is what all my concern is with.

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IV. Summary

entirely

Zora’s hometown had an/a _______ Negro population and non-blacks were only ever seen passing _______ by the natives. The inhabitants _______ the Southerners ride through while continuing to casually _____ their sugar cane. Northerners, however, drove automobiles and ________ different to Negro eyes. Most of the native blacks peered out of the window __ them _____ only the bravest ____ courageous enough to stand outside and watch the strange tourists go ____.

through

watched

chew

appeared

at

while

were

past

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IV. Summary

unusual

An _______ girl named Zora enjoyed talking with the Northerners ____, when she ______ at them, often stopped. She would happily chat ____ the strangers, while _____________ them part of the way _____ the road, ______ a family member appeared out of the house __ which point the chat would be abruptly discontinued. __ her at that time white people and black people were ____ unalike to the ______ that whites did not live in her town.

who

waved

with

accompanying

down

unless

at

To

only

extent

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V. Exercises

《读写教程4》EX: II, P. 204

《读写教程4》EX: III, P. 204

《读写教程4》EX: IV, P. 205

《读写教程4》EX: V, P. 205

《读写教程4》EX: VI, P. 206

《读写教程4》EX: VII, P. 207

《读写教程4》EX: VIII, P. 207

《读写教程4》EX: IX, P. 208

《读写教程4》EX: X, P. 208

《读写教程4》EX: XI, P. 208

Comprehension

Vocabulary

Collocation

Word Building

Structure

Translation


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III.Exercises--Comprehension

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. II, p. 204

II. Answer the following questions.

1. What did the timid people do when the Northern travelers went through the town?

They hid behind their curtains and looked through them at the travelers cautiously.

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III. Exercises--Comprehension

2. What does the word “show” in Paragraph 2 mean? Who were the “actors”?

The small town was a stage where actors were the different travelers who passed by and revealed themselves to the audience—villagers in different aspects. In a child’s eye, it was a play, bringing to her a lot of pleasure.

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III. Exercises--Comprehension

3. Why does the author say there was a strange exchange of greetings?

Probably there were different ways of greetings between them, so there might be some misunderstandings or some inappropriate responses.

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III. Exercises--Comprehension

4. Why did the author feel it strange to be given money when she was singing and dancing?

She wanted to sing and dance so much that she thought the money should have been given as a discouragement rather than an encouragement.

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III. Exercises--Comprehension

5. When was the author aware of the fact that she was black?

After she was thirteen and left her hometown of Eatonville, and then she experienced a huge change. She was aware that she was black.

6. What does the author mean by saying that “it fails to register depression with me”?

It expresses the author’s attitude or her stateof mind that she was not emotionally disturbed by the fact that she was a descendent of slaves. She felt good about herself.

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III. Exercises--Comprehension

7. What does the author compare herself to?

The author felt like a brown bag of mixed items propped up against a wall.

8. What is the author’s point in describing in detail the contents of the bag?

As is described, the contents revealed are nothing but common objects. It suggests that for ordinary people, no matter whether they are white or black, they share something in common.

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. III, p. 204

III. Complete the following sentences with the help of the first letters. Fill in each blank with one word only.

1. The spy looked cau______ around and then walked away from the cinema and disappeared into the dark.

cautiously

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

2. The man was sentenced to 10 years in prison after he was accused of bri_____ a senior bank official.

3. The black girl’s family strongly disa______ of her behaving joyfully in public, especially before strangers.

4. So, in the evening when the body temperature is beginning to fall, there is a natural ten_____ to fall asleep and in the morning, when body temperature begins to rise rapidly, we are most likely to wake up.

bribing

disapprove

disapproves

disapproved

tendency

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

5. When he saw what had happened to the black girl, his face reg______extreme disapproval and dissatisfaction.

6. There was a feeling of disappointment and dep_______ in the office when the news of the job cuts was announced.

7. He was sitting pr______ up against the end of the bed with his back to the wall, still fully dressed.

registered

depression

propped

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

8. Although it emphasizes that the opportunities are not gua_______ to find success, market-orientated businesses should find them worth considering.

guaranteed

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. IV, p. 205

IV. Replace the underlined words or expressions in the following sentences with words or expressions from the text that best keep the original meaning.

1. Howard sat looking at the busy traffic in the street through his glasses.

peering at

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

2. The performance had to be stopped when the actor fell off the stage and had his left leg broken.

be broken off

3. These people who were opposed to cigarette advertising were more likely to give up than those who approved of it.

disapproved of

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

4. Bribing politicians and supporting rotten governments has not enhanced America’s reputation amongst the world’s poorer people and nations.

propping up

5. In general, the increasingly exaggerated claims of some beauty products by the advertisements are vacant promises.

In the main

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

6. The timid people peered at the Northerners from behind curtains because they felt shy when they were with strangers.

in company with

7. During that time, white people were different from black people to me because they seemed to speak a strange language.

in that

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V. Exercises--Vocabulary

8. People around her repeatedly reminded her that there was a real change in her appearance.

at her elbow

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V. Exercises--Collocation

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. V, p. 205

V. Look at the following sentence taken from your reading passage. Just think about what other verbs you can use together with the word “change” and fill in the sentences with the right word.

e.g. It seemed that I had suffered a huge change.

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V. Exercises--Collocation

  • The Chinese market has been exp________ some rapid changes for the last 10 years, which has brought about more chances for foreign investors.

experiencing

2. In a so-called democracy active citizenship means nothing when we are unable to re____ changes to any government policy imposed on us without our consent.

resist

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V. Exercises--Collocation

3. It is human nature to ad______ change in someone else’s affairs while vigorously opposing its necessity in one’s own.

advocate

4. This word is a signal to ind_____ a change in meaning.

indicate

5. It was about this time, however, that friends began to no____ a change in Jack: he was much more careful in what he said.

notice

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V. Exercises--Collocation

6. Since these plants have been transported to their present location, they must under__ changes adapting themselves to the local environment.

undergo

7. While banks wel_____ the change, some critics fear it could do them more harm than good.

welcome

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V. Exercises--Collocation

8. Experts were divided on the cause, with some believing the hot, dry weather ca____ a change in the development of the reproductive system of the plants.

caused

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V. Exercises—Word Building

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. VI, p. 206

VI. The prefix de- can be added to verbs to form new verbs. Verbs formed in this way describe an action which has the opposite effect of or reverses the process described by the original verb. For example,

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V. Exercises—Word Building

The prefix de- combines with nouns to form verbs which indicate that the thing referred to by the noun is removed. For example,

Now study the meaning of the following words and then complete the sentences with some of these words. Take care that words formed in this way can be written with a hyphen or as one word.

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V. Exercises—Word Building

1. The number of qualified experts who have emerged recently in the field has ________ his influence in the market.

devalued

2. The reports said that the gangs of robbers were largely made up of ___________ soldiers.

demobilized

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V. Exercises—Word Building

3. Japan’s financial markets had been substantially ___________ in the previous three years, making them more sensitive to changes in the price of money.

deregulated

4. They ____________ their operations last year and opened several regional offices in the country.

decentralized

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V. Exercises—Word Building

5. It is widely accepted that the conflict has had the effect of ____________ the whole area.

destabilizing

6. Most of the parents said that they thought wearing school uniform _____________ their children.

depersonalized

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V. Exercises—Word Building

7. In factories and workshops, advances in machine technology have ________ numerous working-class jobs.

deskilled

8. The poem does convey a message, but it has to be _______ in order to understand its meaning.

decoded

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V. Exercises—Word Building

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. VII, p. 207

VII. The suffix -ee combines with some verbs which describe actions to form nouns. Nouns formed in this way refer to the person to whom the action is being done. For example,

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V. Exercises—Word Building

The suffix -ee combines with some verbs to form nouns which refer to someone who has performed a particular action. For example,

Now study the meaning of the following words and then complete the sentences with some of these words.

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V. Exercises—Word Building

1. In this country, almost two-thirds of current _______ rely on the social security system for more than half of their income.

retirees

2. In our interviews we try to make our ___________ feel as relaxed as possible.

interviewees

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V. Exercises—Word Building

3. I still remember my first job as a _______ reporter with that newspaper.

trainee

employees

4. The number of _________ in the company has increased tenfold over the past decade.

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V. Exercises—Word Building

5. They had searched the whole area for three days and at last captured the two ________.

escapees

6. You don’t need to stick any stamps to the envelope as the postage will be paid by the _________.

addressee

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V. Exercises—Word Building

7. For the music lovers, the serious ________, Arsena’s concert would be a great occasion to their satisfaction.

devotees

8. Edward VIII, the British King, had to give up the British throne (王位) because he wanted to marry an American ________.

divorcee

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V. Exercises—Structure

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. VIII, p. 207

VIII. The word “mind” when used in the sense of object to, dislike, be annoyed by is usually found in questions and negative sentences and can be followed by an if-clause or an -ing structure. Study the model given below and rewrite each of the following sentences using “mind”.

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V. Exercises—Structure

Model: Not only did I enjoy the show, but I didn’t mind the actors knowing that I like it.

1. I know she isn’t really interested in window-shopping, but she doesn’t object to waiting while I have a look.

I know she isn’t really interested in window-shopping, but she doesn’t mind waiting while I have a look.

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V. Exercises—Structure

2. If people don’t care my having no degrees, I could give a few music lessons!

If people don’t mind my having no degrees, I could give a few music lessons!

3. People are not annoyed by paying much more for good software because they can see the benefits of using it.

People don’t mind paying much more for good software because they can see the benefits of using it.

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V. Exercises—Structure

4. I am big for my age and I didn’t feel annoyed if he thought I was a young man.

I am big for my age and I didn’t mind if he thought I was a young man.

5. We don’t feel annoyed if it takes time for people to express their hopes and goals and their fears and needs in their lives.

We don’t mind if it takes time for people to express their hopes and goals and their fears and needs in their lives.

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V. Exercises—Structure

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. IX, p. 208

IX. The word “no” is a determiner. It can be used before singular (countable and uncountable) nouns and plural nouns at the beginning of a sentence, meaning not a or not any. Study the model given below and rewrite each of the following sentences after the model.

Model:No one on earth ever had a greater chance for glory.

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V. Exercises—Structure

1. Not a single friend came to see her; she shut herself off, in the old familiar world of bedroom and drawing room, and her only amusement, for weeks on, was the reading of her set texts.

No friends

2. Not any cigarette end could give us any clues to or signs of anyone having ever been there.

No cigarette end

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V. Exercises—Structure

No gas, no water and no

electricity

3. Not any gas, not any water and not any electricity in the hospital! How could you expect the children to survive this?

No other information

4. Not any other information is given about the book itself, although there is a brief biographical (传记的) note about the author.

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V. Exercises—Structure

No effort

5. Not any effort has been made to investigate the tens of thousands of murders and “disappearances” that have occurred over the past three years.

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V. Exercises—Translation

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. X, p. 208

X. Translate the following into English.

1. 直到昨天,我们还不知道战争是否会爆发。

have no idea

up to yesterday

break out

Up to yesterday, we had no idea whether the war would break out or not.

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V. Exercises—Translation

2. 身边总有人不断使我想到自己是个奴隶的后代,但这并没有使我沮丧。

at one’s elbow

remind me that…

fail to register depression with me

Someone is always at my elbow reminding me that I am a descendent of slaves, but it fails to register depression with me.

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V. Exercises—Translation

3. 我不想给你们讲那个故事,我只是顺便说起的。

in passing

mention

I do not want to tell you that story; I have just mentioned that in passing.

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V. Exercises—Translation

4. 比起你的计划,我更喜欢他的计划,因为我觉得他的计划更实际。

in that

I prefer his plan to yours

I prefer his plan to yours in that I think it is more practical.

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V. Exercises—Translation

5. 她脸上流露的不同意的神情是那么真实,连我都差点信以为真。

the disapproval registered on her face

think it genuine

The disapproval registered on her face was so real that even I would have thought it genuine.

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V. Exercises—Translation

6. 他们与那家公司中断生意来往,因为公司上一个财政年度损失惨重, 已经破产了。

break off the business relations

suffer huge losses

go bankrupt

They broke off the business relations with that company as it suffered huge losses in the last financial year and went bankrupt.

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V. Exercises—Translation

7. 也许那就是当初为进步而付出的代价,谁知道呢?

the price that has to be paid for the progress

in the first place

Perhaps this was the price that has to be paid for the progress in the first place— who knows?

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V. Exercises—Translation

8. 她准备行李时, 行李包里的物品被装进拿出好几次。

be emptied and refilled several times

prepare one’s luggage

When she was preparing her luggage, the bag was emptied and refilled several times.

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V. Exercises--Translation

《读写教程 IV》:Ex. XI, p. 208

XI.Translate the following into Chinese.

1. The native whites rode dusty horses, and the Northern tourists traveled down the sandy village road in automobiles.

本地的白人骑着风尘仆仆的马匹,而北方来的旅游者则驾着汽车沿着乡下的沙土路一路驶来。

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V. Exercises--Translation

2. They were peered at cautiously from behind curtains by the timid at the town. The bold would come outside to watch them go past and got just as much pleasure out of the tourists as the tourists got out of the village.

小镇的人胆小的就躲在窗帘后小心翼翼地偷看他们,胆大的则会走出屋外看着他们经过,感到很开心,就像这些旅游者看到这村庄也感到很有乐趣一样。

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V. Exercises--Translation

3. In my heart as well as in the mirror, I became a permanent brown—like the best shoe polish, guaranteed not to rub nor run.

不仅在镜中,也在内心深处,我变成了永远不黑不白的棕色人—— 就像那最好的鞋油,不会被抹掉,也永不褪色。

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V. Exercises--Translation

4. They disapproved of any joyful tendencies in me, but I was their Zora nevertheless. I belonged to them, to the nearby hotels, to the country—everyone’s Zora.

对我表现出的任何一点欢乐的苗头,他们都不赞同。但我仍然是他们的佐拉,我是属于他们,属于周围的旅馆,属于那个地方,属于每一个人的佐拉。

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V. Exercises--Translation

5. It seemed that I had suffered a huge change. I was not Zora of Eatonville any more; I was now a little black girl.

我似乎已发生了巨大的变化,我再也不是伊顿维尔的佐拉了,我现在成了个小黑妞。

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V. Exercises--Translation

6. It is quite exciting to hold the center of the national stage, with the audience not knowing whether to laugh or to weep.

占据国内舞台的中心可真刺激,而台下的观众则不知是喜是忧。

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V. Exercises--Translation

7. I do not always feel colored. Even now I often achieve the unconscious Zora of that small village, Eatonville.

我没有老是感到自己是有色人种。甚至现在我感觉自己还是在伊顿维尔小镇上的懵然无知的佐拉。

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V. Exercises--Translation

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8. Perhaps that is how the Great Stuffer of Bags filled them in the first place—who knows?

也许当初上帝这个装袋者往我们各自的皮袋子中填塞时正是这么做的,谁知道呢?

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写作模式

参考范文

Ⅵ. Writing

A Letter of Recommendation

应朋友要求,为其深造谋职等写一封推荐信

(推荐信)


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写作模式(推荐信)

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1)He came to my notice in…, when he happened to... 2)With a steady increase in contacts and exchanges of ideas, he showed a wide scope of knowledge about…as well asa strong interestin…3)A deeper impression he left upon meoccurred in…, when… 4) His academic performance ranked among…(进一步说明) 5)Gradually, both his unique abilities

(划线部分可替换)

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Ⅵ. Writing

in…andour same quest for…pushed meto…

6) After stepping into the stage of…, he came to demonstrate a greater originality in…, a good indicator of whichwas…7)To my knowledge, it is only in the last two yearsthat… 8)SoI have every reason to assure you that…

(划线部分可替换)

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Ⅵ. Writing

9)As far as the content of his character is concerned, he clings to the motto that…10)So his compass for…rests not so much with…as with…11) And particularly remarkable are… and… 12) In short, what is native to him andwhat he has attained through his previous efforts, complete with…, have made it an honor for me to recommend himto you.

(划线部分可替换)

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Ⅵ. Writing

A Letter of Recommendation

应同学要求,为其深造写封推荐信

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Ⅵ. Writing

Engineering College

Air Force Engineering University

Xi’an, Shaanxi 710038

P. R. China 

To Whom It May Concern:

Dear Sir or Madam:

(It has always been my pleasure to recommend close classmates for their further studies at higher educational institutions. But sometimes the one to be recommended is so outstanding that I feel somewhat reluctant to write reference letters for him/her, for, you know, it is far from pleasant for one to part with his favorites. And now Mr. Li Mu is just in such a case with me.)

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Ⅵ. Writing

1)He came to my notice in 1999, when he happened toshare the same dorm with me. 2)With a steady increase in contacts and exchanges of ideas, he showed a wide scope of knowledge about the development of scienceas well asa strong interestinthe field of artificial intelligence. 3)A deeper impression he left upon meoccurred in 2001, when the academic reports of our grades were made public in the campus bulletin. 4)His academic performance

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Ⅵ. Writing

in all the subjects of the four semestersrankedamong the top 1 percent. 5)Gradually, both his unique abilities in problem-tackling andour same quest for true knowledge about science pushed me to attach more of my concern to him.

6) When stepping into the stage of specialized courses, he came to demonstrate a greater originality in application of book knowledge, a good indicator of whichwas a

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Ⅵ. Writing

Back

steady flow ofhis publications. 7)To my knowledge, it is only in the last two yearsthat he has published six weighty papers. 8)SoI have every reason to assure you that further study in your distinguished institution will give fuller play to his potentials.

9)As far as the content of his character is concerned, he clings to the motto that example is more powerful than precept. 10)So his compass

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Ⅵ. Writing

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formeasuring one’s worth to society rests not so much with what one has said as with what one has done.11) And particularly remarkable are his firm commitment to what he has promised, and his self-sacrifices for larger interests. 12) In short, what is native to him andwhat he has attained through his previous efforts, complete with his moral integrity, have made it a big honor for me to recommend him to you.

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Ⅵ. Writing

Back

(Please be free to contact me in the earliest possible time if there is any need for further information about Mr. Li.)

Sincerely yours

Wang Wei

THE END

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黑奴的历史对我没有什么损失

Para. 1a 我清楚地记得我成为黑人的那一天。13岁之前我一直住在佛罗里达州的一个黑人小镇伊顿维尔。小镇的居民全是黑人。我所接触过的仅有的白人都是来自佛罗里达的奥兰多或是去往奥兰多的过客。本地的白人骑着风尘仆仆的马匹,而北方来的旅游者则驾着汽车沿着乡下的沙土路一路驶来。   

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Para. 1b 小镇的人见惯了南方人,因此他们经过时小镇的人照旧大嚼甘蔗。但是看到北方人则又是另一回事了。小镇的人胆小的就躲在窗帘后小心翼翼地偷看他们,胆大的则会走出屋外看着他们经过,感到很开心,就像这些旅游者看到这村庄也感到很有乐趣一样。


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Para. 2a到门前平台去可能会吓坏镇上其他人,但对我来说,那儿就像前排座位一样。 我最爱坐在门柱上。我不仅喜欢在那儿看人们来来往往,也不在乎让那些人知道我喜欢看, 顺便还与他们搭几句话。我向他们挥手,如果他们也向我挥手,我还与他们打招呼。


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Para. 2b 对此,骑马或驾车的人通常会停下来,我们不可思议地互打招呼之后,我可能会随着他们 “颠儿几步”,这是我们佛罗里达最南边的说法,意思是跟着他们走上一小段路。如果正赶上家里人碰巧来到房前见到我,他们当然就会毫不客气地打断我们的交谈。


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Para. 3那段日子里,在我看来,白人和黑人的不同只不过是他们路过镇上,但从不住在镇上。他们喜欢听我 “说几句”,听我唱歌,想看我跳舞,并为此大方地给我小银币。这倒使我感到奇怪,因为我太愿意跟他们 “说上几句”,为他们唱歌跳舞了,得给我钱才能使我停下来。只是他们不知道这一点。黑人不会给我钱,对我表现出的任何一点欢乐的苗头,他们都不赞同。但我仍然是他们的佐拉,我是属于他们,属于周围的旅馆,属于那个地方,属于每一个人的佐拉。


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Para. 4 但我13岁时,家里发生了变故,我被送到杰克逊维尔的学校去了。离开伊顿维尔时我还是我,佐拉。可在杰克逊维尔下了船后,原来的佐拉不复存在了。我似乎已发生了巨大的变化,我再也不是伊顿维尔的佐拉了,我现在成了个小黑妞。在好几方面我都发现了自己的这种变化。不仅在镜中,也在内心深处,我变成了永远不黑不白的棕色人-- 就像那最好的鞋油,不会被抹掉,也永不褪色。


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Para. 5a 身边总有人不断提醒我自己是个奴隶的后代,但这并没有使我沮丧。奴隶制是60年前的事了。解放黑奴这场手术很成功,病人的情况也不错,谢谢。这场使我从黑奴变为美国公民的可怕战争对我叫道“各就各位!”内战后的那段时期说 “预备!”我的上一代人喊道“跑!”就像一场赛跑一样,我飞速起跑,决不可中途停步,回望伤心。


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Para. 5b 黑奴的历史是我为文明生活所付的代价,而作出这一选择的并不是我。世界上再没有什么人有过比此更大的争取荣耀的机会了。想想将要获得的新生活,而且我们没有任何损失。不管我做什么,都可能得到双倍的嘉奖,或是双份的责难。想想这一点,知道这一点都令人激动不已。占据国内舞台的中心可真刺激,而台下的观众则不知是喜是忧。


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Para. 6 我没有老是感到自己是有色人种。甚至现在我感觉自己还是在伊顿维尔小镇上的懵然无知的佐拉。比如,我可以在餐馆和一位白人坐在一起。我们闲谈一些平常的琐事,白人会安静地坐着,兴味盎然地听着。


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Para. 7a有时候我不属于任何人种,我就是我自己。但我大体上还是感觉自己像一只靠墙立着装满各种杂物的棕色皮袋子。靠墙立着的还有其他颜色的袋子,白色的,红色的,黄色的。倒出袋中物,可以发现一堆或有用或无用的小杂物:碎玻璃块;小线头儿;一扇早已朽败的门上的钥匙;一把锈蚀的刀;一双为某条从来没有、将来也不会有的路而准备的旧鞋;一颗弯折的钉,它所承受过的重量足以弄折任何钉子;一两支干花,仍散发出几许花香。


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Para. 7b 你手中拿的是棕色的袋子,面前的地上则是袋中所装的那堆东西--它与其他袋子中所倒出的一堆堆东西几乎一模一样,如果把它们混成一大堆,再重新装回各自的袋中,也不会有多大的不同。多少有点有色玻璃片也没有什么关系。也许当初上帝这个装袋者往我们各自的皮袋子中填塞时正是这么做的,谁知道呢?


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I have a dream that my four children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.

  • I have a dream that one day down in Alabama, whose governor’s lips are presently dripping with the words of interposition(干预) and nullification (废除), will be transformed into a situation where little black boys and black girls will be able to join hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers. I have a dream today. I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain shall be made low, the rough places will be

so even though we face the difficulties of today and tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American dream.

  • I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.” I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave-owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a desert state, sweltering with the heat of injustice and oppression, will be transformed into an oasis (绿洲) of freedom and justice.

made plain, and the crooked places will be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together. This is our hope. This is the faith with which I go back to the South. With this faith we will be able to hew (开辟) out of the mountain of despaira stone of hope. With this faith we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, to stand up for freedom together, knowing that we will be free one day.

  • I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow cells. Some of you have come from areas where your quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive(赎罪).

  • Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed. Let us not wallow(沉迷于) in the valley of despair. I say to you today, my friends,


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