Chapter 2 breeds and life cycles of livestock and poultry
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Chapter 2: Breeds and Life Cycles of Livestock and Poultry. Unit 2e: Swine Life Cycle - history and general production of hogs. Hogs in the Americas :. 1493 : Santo Domingo with Columbus 1539 : brought to Florida

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Chapter 2: Breeds and Life Cycles of Livestock and Poultry

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Chapter 2 breeds and life cycles of livestock and poultry

Chapter 2: Breeds and Life Cycles of Livestock and Poultry

Unit 2e: Swine Life Cycle - history and general production of hogs


Hogs in the americas

Hogs in the Americas:

  • 1493: Santo Domingo with Columbus

  • 1539: brought to Florida

    • Wild hogs common to southeastern US in colonial times were likely “escapees” from as early as Spanish exploration


Historical perspectives

Historical Perspectives:

  • Domesticated about 8000 years ago

  • China produces nearly one-half of the world’s hogs

  • Vast majority of market hogs are crossbreds

  • Production concentrated in the Midwest due to availability of corn and soybeans

  • Revolution: the pork industry became highly horizontally integrated in the 1990’s


Swine numbers 2001

Swine numbers - 2001


Swine genealogy

Swine Genealogy:

  • Genus and species: Sus scrofa

  • Sub-species 1: domesticus

    • European breeds, such as Hampshire

  • Sub-species 2: indicus

    • Asian breeds, such as Meishan

  • Common term for hogs: porcine


Swine life cycle farrowing

Swine Life Cycle: Farrowing

  • Well developed gilts are bred to farrow at approximately one year of age

  • Sows are limit-fed to control weight during gestation

  • Farrowing crates or stalls commonly used in the US


Newborn piglet management

Newborn Piglet Management:

  • Birth weight: 3.0-3.5 pounds typical

  • Newborns do not effectively control body temperature; require heat source

  • Sow’s colostrum is critical to survival

  • Navel dipping - antiseptic to prevent infection

  • Identification - record keeping begins


Pig management first month

Pig Management: First Month

  • Tail removal - to reduce tail-biting

  • Clipping “needle” teeth - prevent injuries

  • Castrate - market pigs in US will be castrated

  • Weaning

    • Commonly done at about one month of age

    • New: “segregated early weaning” at 12-16 days

  • Creep feeding - may be fed extra energy


Feedlot animals

Feedlot Animals:

  • Barrows and gilts commonly marketed for meat

  • Free-choice feeding of high corn and soybean meal diets common in US

  • Common market goals:

    • 6 months of age or less

    • 230 to 270 pounds live weight


Female replacements

Female Replacements:

  • Goal: first litter born at one year of age

    • Selected females will be bred at about 7 to 8 months of age

  • Subsequent breeding times will be determined by management strategies

    • Sows are typically polyestrous

    • Multiple litters per year possible


Replacement males

Replacement Males:

  • Performance evaluation

    • Items such as average daily gain, feed efficiency, backfat thickness and rib-eye area will be evaluated

  • Limited use in breeding at one year of age

  • AI collection for breeding with unfrozen semen use is common


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