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Bell Ringer. The gas with the largest volume at STP is: 10.0 g He 10.0 g Ne 10.0 g Ar 10.0 g Kr. (56.0 L He). 1 mol He. 22.4 L He. He:. 10.0 g He. 56.0 L He. x. x. =. 4.00 g He. 1 mol He. Source: 2004 VA Chemistry EOC Exam. Bell Ringer. The gas with the largest volume at STP is:

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Bell ringer l.jpg

Bell Ringer

  • The gas with the largest volume at STP is:

  • 10.0 g He

  • 10.0 g Ne

  • 10.0 g Ar

  • 10.0 g Kr

(56.0 L He)

1 mol He

22.4 L He

He:

10.0 g He

56.0 L He

x

x

=

4.00 g He

1 mol He

Source: 2004 VA Chemistry EOC Exam


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Bell Ringer

  • The gas with the largest volume at STP is:

  • 10.0 g He

  • 10.0 g Ne

  • 10.0 g Ar

  • 10.0 g Kr

(56.0 L He)

(11.1 L Ne)

1 mol Ne

22.4 L Ne

Ne:

10.0 g Ne

11.1 L Ne

x

x

=

20.18 g Ne

1 mol Ne

Source: 2004 VA Chemistry EOC Exam


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Bell Ringer

  • The gas with the largest volume at STP is:

  • 10.0 g He

  • 10.0 g Ne

  • 10.0 g Ar

  • 10.0 g Kr

(56.0 L He)

(11.1 L Ne)

(5.61 L Ar)

1 mol Ar

22.4 L Ar

Ar:

10.0 g Ar

5.61 L Ar

x

x

=

39.95 g Ar

1 mol Ar

Source: 2004 VA Chemistry EOC Exam


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Bell Ringer

  • The gas with the largest volume at STP is:

  • 10.0 g He

  • 10.0 g Ne

  • 10.0 g Ar

  • 10.0 g Kr

(56.0 L He)

(11.1 L Ne)

(5.61 L Ar)

(2.67 L Kr)

1 mol Kr

22.4 L Kr

Kr:

10.0 g Kr

2.67 L Kr

x

x

=

83.80 g Kr

1 mol Kr

Source: 2004 VA Chemistry EOC Exam


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GAS LAWS

Ms. Besal

3/10/2006


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Lesson Objectives

  • You will be able to:

  • Name and describe 5 characteristics of gases

  • Identify three differences between ideal gases and real gases.

  • Define the term “STP”

  • List 4 units for pressure measurement

  • Explain and describe the relationship between temperature and pressure of gases, according to Charles’ Law.

  • Explain and describe the relationship between volume and pressure of gases, according to Boyle’s Law.

  • Explain how temperature, pressure, and volume of gases are all related according to the combined gas law.

  • Solve mathematic problems about Charles’ Law, Boyle’s Law, and the combined gas law.


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What are Characteristics of a GAS?

E X P A N D A B L E

Diffusible...

Fluid

Compressible

Low Density


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In the REAL WORLD:

Gases are fat. (they have mass)

Gases hog the sofa. (they have volume)

Gases are pushy and have an attitude toward other gases. (they exert forces on each other)

In an IDEAL WORLD:

Gases are skinny. (they have no mass)

Gases make themselves invisible. (they have no volume)

Gases are not confrontational. (they do not interact… elastic collisions)

: Gas Laws

Assumptions

Image Source: mtv.com


So far l.jpg

SO FAR…

S T P

Standard Temperature & Pressure

273 K

1 atmosphere (atm)


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F

P

=

A

What does PRESSURE mean?

  • In Life:

    Pressure = a chemistry quiz every day

  • In Science:

  • Pressure = force per unit area

PSI = Pounds per Square Inch


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How else can we measure Pressure?

760 mm Hg

1 atmosphere

=

760 torr

101.3 kilopascals

These numbers reflect STANDARD PRESSURE


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SO FAR…

S T P

Standard Temperature & Pressure

273 K

1 atmosphere (atm)


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How can we change Gases?

Action

Variable

Heat it up/Cool it down

Temperature

Change container size

Volume

Compress or Decompress

Pressure


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How are Temperature and Volume Related?

Initial

Final

T1

T2

Temperature

V1

V2

Volume


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How are Temperature and Volume Related?

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Volume

x

x

x

x

x

x

Temperature

“At constant pressure… temperature and volume are directly proportional”


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Charles’ Law

V1

V2

=

T1

T2

“At constant pressure… temperature and volume are directly proportional.”

Temperature is always measured in Kelvin!

0ºC = 273 K


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How can we change Gases?

Action

Variable

Heat it up/Cool it down

Temperature

Change container size

Volume

Compress or Decompress

Pressure


How are volume and pressure related l.jpg

How are Volume and Pressure Related?

Initial

Final

V1

V2

Volume

P1

P2

Pressure


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How are Volume and Pressure Related?

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

Volume

x

x

x

x

x

x

Pressure

“At constant temperature… volume and pressure are inversely proportional”


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P1

V1

=

P2

V2

x

x

Boyle’s Law

“At constant temperature… volume and pressure are inversely proportional.”


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V1

V2

=

T1

T2

P1

V1

=

P2

V2

x

x

To Recap…

  • Charles’ Law:

    Relates Temperature and Volume.

  • Boyle’s Law:

  • Relates Pressure and Volume


Therefore l.jpg

P1

V1

P2

V2

T1

T2

…THEREFORE:

  • Temperature, Volume, and Pressure are all related!

=

Combined Gas Law


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P1

V1

P2

V2

T1

T2

P1

V1

P2

V2

Practice

1.

100.0 cm3 oxygen at 10.50 kPa changes to 9.91 kPa. What is the new volume of the gas?

=

=

Boyle’s Law!

(10.50 kPa)

x

(100.0 cm3 O2)

=

(9.91 kPa)

x

(V2)

V2

=

(10.50 kPa)

x

(100.0 cm3 O2)

=

106 cm3 O2

(9.91 kPa)


Practice24 l.jpg

P1

V1

P2

V2

=

T1

T2

P1

V1

=

P2

V2

(748 mmHg)

x

(150.0 mL SO2)

(P2)

x

(140.6 mL SO2)

(748 mmHg)

(150.0 mL SO2)

P2

=

=

(140.6 mL SO2)

Practice

2.

150.0 mL sulfur dioxide at 748 mmHg changes to a new volume of 140.6 mL. What is the new pressure of the gas?

=

798 mmHg


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P1

V1

P2

V2

T1

T2

V1

V2

T1

T2

Practice

3.

75.0 cm3 of hydrogen at 27.0ºC changed to –10.0ºC. What is the new volume of the gas?

=

=

Charles’ Law!

Kelvin!

75.0 cm3 H2

V2

=

300 K

263 K

V2

=

(75.0 cm3 H2)

x

(263 K)

=

65.8 cm3 H2

(300 K)


Practice26 l.jpg

P1

V1

P2

V2

T1

T2

0.560 L

0.400L

T1

280.71 K

T1

=

(0.560 L)

x

(280.71 K)

=

120.ºC

(0.400 L)

Practice

4.

A gas occupies a volume of 0.560 L. The original temperature was cooled to 7.71 ºC and the resulting volume was 0.400 L. What was the original temperature of the gas?

=

=

393 K


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P1

V1

P2

V2

T1

T2

Practice

5.

140. L chlorine at 15.0ºC and 110.0 kPa changed to 40.0ºC and 123.5 L. What is the new pressure?

=

(110.0 kPa)

(140 L Cl2)

(P2)

(123.5 L Cl2)

=

288 K

313 K

P2

=

(110.0 kPa)

(140. L Cl2)

(313 K)

136 kPa

=

(288 K)

(123.5 L Cl2)


Practice28 l.jpg

P1

V1

P2

V2

T1

T2

(120 kPa)

(500.0 mL H2)

(101.3 kPa)

(V2)

293 K

273 K

V2

=

(121 kPa)

(500.0 mL H2)

(273 K)

(293 K)

(101.3 kPa)

Practice

6.

500.0 mL of hydrogen at 20.0ºC and 121 kPa changed to STP. What is the new volume of the gas?

=

=

556 mL H2

=


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For Next Class:

Homework:

Last page of Gas Laws Packet: Problems 1-10, 11-25 ODD

QUIZ on Charles, Boyle, and Combined Gas Laws

  • 24 points.

  • 3 short answer/FITB problems (2 points each)

  • 3 math problems (6 points each)

    • 2 points for correct equation

    • 2 points for correct math

    • 2 points for correct labels


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What Should I Study?

  • how pressure, temperature, and volume relate to each other in Boyle’s, Charles’, and Combined Gas Laws.

  • how to determine changing conditions using math (practice problems & homework).

  • standard conditions of temperature and pressure; how to convert from Celsius to Kelvin, from kPa to atm to mm Hg.

  • how real gases and ideal gases differ.


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Lesson Objectives

  • You should be able to:

  • Name and describe 5 characteristics of gases

  • Identify three differences between ideal gases and real gases.

  • Define the term “STP”

  • List 4 units for pressure measurement

  • Explain and describe the relationship between temperature and pressure of gases, according to Charles’ Law.

  • Explain and describe the relationship between volume and pressure of gases, according to Boyle’s Law.

  • Explain how temperature, pressure, and volume of gases are all related according to the combined gas law.

  • Solve mathematic problems about Charles’ Law, Boyle’s Law, and the combined gas law.


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