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Technician Licensing Class “T5”. Our thanks to the Plano Amateur Radio Club, Plano, Texas. Amateur Radio Technician Class Element 2 Course Presentation. ELEMENT 2 SUBELEMENTS T1 - FCC Rules, station license responsibilities T2 - Control operator duties T3 - Operating practices

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technician licensing class t5
Technician Licensing Class“T5”

Our thanks to the Plano Amateur Radio Club, Plano, Texas

amateur radio technician class element 2 course presentation
Amateur Radio Technician ClassElement 2 Course Presentation

ELEMENT 2 SUBELEMENTS

  • T1 - FCC Rules, station license responsibilities
  • T2 - Control operator duties
  • T3 - Operating practices
  • T4 - Radio and electronic fundamentals
  • T5 - Station setup and operation
  • T6 - Communications modes and methods
  • T7 - Special operations
  • T8 - Emergency and Public Service Communications
  • T9 - Radio waves, propagation, and antennas
  • T0 - Electrical and RF Safety
station setup and operation t5a
Station setup and operation T5A
  • Station hookup – microphone, speaker, headphones, filters, power source, connecting a computer
  • A microphone connects to the transmitter in a basic amateur radio station.
  • A Speaker is a piece of station equipment that converts electrical signals to sound waves.
  • A set of headphones could be used in place of a regular speaker to help you copy signals in a noisy area.
station setup and operation t5a1
Station setup and operation T5A
  • Station hookup – microphone, speaker, headphones, filters, power source, connecting a computer (cont)
  • A good reason for using a regulated power supply for communications equipment is to protect equipment from voltage fluctuations.
  • A filter would be installed at the transmitter to reduce spurious emissions.
  • A Notch Filter could be connected to a TV receiver as the first step in trying to prevent RF overload from a nearby 2-meter transmitter.
station setup and operation t5a2
Station setup and operation T5A
  • Station hookup – microphone, speaker, headphones, filters, power source, connecting a computer (cont)
  • Audio feedback is the term used to describe what happens when a microphone and speaker are too close to each other.
  • A Microphone is not required for a packet radio station.
  • A Sound Card can be used to connect a radio with a computer for data transmission.
station setup and operation t5a3
Station setup and operation T5A
  • Station hookup – microphone, speaker, headphones, filters, power source, connecting a computer (cont)
  • A Terminal Node Controller is connected between the transceiver and computer terminal in a packet radio station.

Packet

TNC

Transceiver

Computer

station setup and operation t5b
Station setup and operation T5B
  • Operating controls
    • If a transmitter is operated with the microphone gain set too high it may cause the signal to become distorted and unreadable.
    • A VHF/UHF transceiver may be capable of storing in memory the following kinds of information:
      • Transmit and receive operating frequency
      • CTCSS tone frequency
      • Transmit power level

All of these answers are correct

  • One way to select a frequency on which to operate is to use the keypad or VFO knob to enter the correct frequency.
station setup and operation t5b1
Station setup and operation T5B
  • Operating controls (cont)
    • The squelch control on a transceiver is used to quiet noise when no signal is being received.
    • The purpose of the buttons labeled "up" and "down" on many microphones is to allow easy frequency or memory selection.
    • A way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver is to store the frequency in a memory channel.
station setup and operation t5b2
Station setup and operation T5B
  • Operating controls (cont)
    • To improve the situation if the station you are listening to is hard to copy because of ignition noise interference may be to turn on the noise blanker.
    • Receiver Incremental Tuning (RIT)
nb rit
NB & RIT

Noise blanker

RIT – Receiver Incremental Tuning

station setup and operation t5b3
Station setup and operation T5B
  • Operating controls (cont)
    • The purpose of the "shift" control found on many VHF/UHF transceivers is to adjust the offset between transmit and receive frequency.
    • The purpose of the "step" menu function found on many transceivers is to set the tuning rate when changing frequencies.
    • The purpose of the "function" or "F" key found on many transceivers is to select an alternate action for some control buttons.
station setup and operation t5c
Station setup and operation T5C
  • Repeaters; repeater and simplex operating techniques, offsets, selective squelch, open and closed repeaters, linked repeaters
  • One purpose of a repeater is to extend the usable range of mobile and low power stations.
  • A courtesy tone is a tone used to indicate when a transmission is complete.
  • The repeater input and output frequencies is the most important information to know before using a repeater.
station setup and operation t5c1
Station setup and operation T5C
  • Repeaters; repeater and simplex operating techniques, offsets, selective squelch, open and closed repeaters, linked repeaters (cont)
    • The most common input/output frequency offset for repeaters in the 2-meter band is 0.6 MHz otherwise stated as 600 kHz.
    • The most common input/output frequency offset for repeaters in the 70-centimeter band is 5.0 MHz.
    • The terms input and output frequency when referring to repeater operations means the repeater receives on one frequency and transmits on another.
slide14

A repeater is a device used to

retransmit amateur radio signals.

2-meter band

Offset

+ 600 kHz

Output Freq

147.18 MHz

Input Freq

147.78 MHz

60 miles

slide15

A repeater is a device used to

retransmit amateur radio signals.

70-centimeter band

Offset

+ 5.0 mHz

Output Freq

442.275 MHz

Input Freq

447.275

MHz

50 miles

station setup and operation t5c2
Station setup and operation T5C
  • Repeaters; repeater and simplex operating techniques, offsets, selective squelch, open and closed repeaters, linked repeaters(cont)
    • The term, simplex operation, means transmitting and receiving on the same frequency.
    • A reason to use simplex instead of a repeater is to avoid tying up the repeater when direct contact is possible.
    • You might find out you could communicate with a station using simplex instead of a repeater if you check the repeater input frequency to see if you can hear the other station.
offsets
Offsets

The repeater listings show the repeaters\' output frequencies.  

Repeaters have standard input frequency offsets as shown in the table.

station setup and operation t5c3
Station setup and operation T5C
  • Repeaters; repeater and simplex operating techniques, offsets, selective squelch, open and closed repeaters, linked repeaters(cont)
    • You should pause briefly between transmissions when using a repeater to listen for anyone wanting to break in.
    • Linked repeater system is the term for a series of repeaters that can be connected to one another to provide users with a wider coverage.
    • Access to any repeater may be limited by the repeater owner.
station setup and operation t5c4
Station setup and operation T5C
  • Repeaters; repeater and simplex operating techniques, offsets, selective squelch, open and closed repeaters, linked repeaters (cont)
    • The main reason repeaters should be approved by the local frequency coordinator before being installed is that coordination minimizes interference between repeaters and makes the most efficient use of available frequencies.
    • A closed repeater is the term used to describe a repeater when use is restricted to the members of a club or group.
station setup and operation t5d
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Recognition and correction of problems
    • A logical first step when attempting to cure a radio frequency interference problem in a nearby telephone is to install an RF filter at the telephone.
    • The most likely cause of telephone interference from a nearby transmitter is the transmitter\'s signals are causing the telephone to act like a radio receiver.
  • The following may be useful in correcting a radio frequency interference problem:
    • Snap-on ferrite chokes
    • Low-pass and high-pass filters
    • Notch and band-pass filters
    • All of these answers are correct
station setup and operation t5d1
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Recognition and correction of problems(cont)
    • If someone tells you that your transmissions are interfering with their TV reception:
      • First make sure that your station is operating properly and;
      • That it does not cause interference to your own television.
    • When a neighbor reports that your radio signals are interfering with something in his home:
      • The proper course of action to take is to check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice.
    • The most likely cause of telephone interference from a nearby transmitter is the transmitter\'s signals are causing the telephone to act like a radio receiver.
station setup and operation t5d2
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Recognition and correction of problems(cont)
    • If someone tells you that your transmissions are interfering with their TV reception you should first make sure that your station is operating properly and that it does not cause interference to your own television.
    • If a "Part 15" device in your neighbor’s home is causing harmful interference…..
station setup and operation t5d3
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Recognition and correction of problems(cont)
    • When a neighbor reports that your radio signals are interfering with something in his home the proper course of action to take is to check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice.
    • A logical first step when attempting to cure a radio frequency interference problem in a nearby telephone is to install an RF filter at the telephone.
    • If a "Part 15" device in your neighbor’s home is causing harmful interference to your amateur station you should:
      • Work with your neighbor to identify the offending device
      • Politely inform your neighbor about the rules that require him to stop using the device if it causes interference
      • Check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice

All of these answers are correct

station setup and operation t5d4
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Fundamental overload
  • Symptoms of overload and overdrive
    • A fundamental overload, in reference to a receiver, is interference caused by very strong signals from a nearby source.
    • Receiver front-end overload is the result of interference caused by strong signals from a nearby source.
station setup and operation t5d5
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Distortion
    • If you receive a report that your signal through the repeater is distorted or weak, the problem may be any of the following:

Your transmitter may be slightly off frequency

Your batteries may be running low

You could be in a bad location

All of these answers are correct

station setup and operation t5d6
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Over and under modulation,

RF feedback, Off frequency signals

    • If another operator reports that your SSB signal is very garbled and breaks up, RF energy may be getting into the microphone circuit and causing feedback.
  • Fading and noise
    • If another operator tells you he is hearing a variable high-pitched whine on the signals from your mobile transmitter, the power wiring for your radio could be picking up noise from the vehicle\'s electrical system.
    • Doppler shift is NOT a cause of radio frequency interference.
station setup and operation t5d7
Station setup and operation T5D
  • Problems with digital communications links
    • One of the reasons to use digital signals instead of analog signals to communicate with another station is:

many digital systems can automatically correct

errors caused by noise and interference.

take aways
Take aways
  • Microphone … transmitter
  • Speaker … receiver
  • Mic/speaker too close … feedback
  • Noisy area, use headphones
  • Regulated power supply … voltage fluctuations
take aways cont
Take aways (cont)
  • Reduce spurious emissions at Xmtr
  • Prevent RF overload … Notch filter
  • Transceiver…TNC…computer
  • Packet doesn’t need a mic
  • Computer sound card for data transmissions
take aways cont1
Take aways (cont)
  • Too much mic gain will cause distortion and be unreadable
  • Store in memory: PL (tones); Power level; transmit/receive frequencies
  • Keypad/VFO to select frequency
  • Favorite frequency … store in memory
  • Ignition noise…turn on noise blanker
take aways cont2
Take aways (cont)
  • Up/Down buttons … easy frequency or memory selection
  • Shift … sets offset frequency
  • RIT … Receiver Incremental Tuning
  • Step sets tuning rate
  • “F” selects alternate actions with same buttons
take aways cont3
Take aways (cont)
  • Repeaters extend range of mobiles and low-power stations
  • Courtesy tone … indicates transmission is done
  • Offsets: 0.6 MHz … 5.0 MHz … 2-meter & 70-centimeter bands
  • Input/output frequencies of repeaters: receives on one, transmits on another
  • Transmit and receive same frequency… simplex
take aways cont4
Take aways (cont)
  • Use of simplex avoids tying up repeater
  • Series of repeaters connected … linked repeater system
  • Access to repeater may be limited by owner
  • Closed machine is restricted use
  • Local frequency coordinators … minimize interference and make most efficient use of frequencies available
take aways cont5
Take aways (cont)
  • Fundamental overload … very strong signals from nearby source
  • Doppler is NOT a cause of RFI
  • Transmitter signals cause telephone to act like a receiver caused by nearby transmitter
  • Correct RFI: Snap-on ferrite chokes; low-pass and high-pass filters
  • Neighbor reports interference … meet standards of good amateur practice
take aways cont6
Take aways (cont)
  • Neighbor causing interference … work with neighbor; inform rules require stop of interference; Good standards of amateur practice
  • Mobile has high-pitched whine … power wiring picking up noise from electrical system
  • SSB garbled and broken up … RF energy causing feedback
  • Digital systems automatically error correct noise and interference
  • Using repeater: distorted or weak .. Off frequency; batteries low; bad location
element 2 technician class question pool t5
Element 2 Technician Class Question PoolT5

Valid July 1, 2006

Through

June 30, 2010

t5a01 what does a microphone connect to in a basic amateur radio station
T5A01 What does a microphone connect to in a basic amateur radio station?
  • The receiver
  • The transmitter
  • The SWR Bridge
  • The Balun
t5a02 which piece of station equipment converts electrical signals to sound waves
T5A02 Which piece of station equipment converts electrical signals to sound waves?
  • Frequency coordinator
  • Frequency discriminator
  • Speaker
  • Microphone
slide39
T5A03 What is the term used to describe what happens when a microphone and speaker are too close to each other?
  • Excessive wind noise
  • Audio feedback
  • Inverted signal patterns
  • Poor electrical grounding
t5a04 what could you use in place of a regular speaker to help you copy signals in a noisy area
T5A04 What could you use in place of a regular speaker to help you copy signals in a noisy area?
  • A video display
  • A low pass filter
  • A set of headphones
  • A boom microphone
t5a05 what is a good reason for using a regulated power supply for communications equipment
T5A05What is a good reason for using a regulated power supply for communications equipment?
  • To protect equipment from voltage fluctuations
  • A regulated power supply has FCC approval
  • A fuse or circuit breaker regulates the power
  • Regulated supplies are less expensive
t5a06 where must a filter be installed to reduce spurious emissions
T5A06 Where must a filter be installed to reduce spurious emissions?
  • At the transmitter
  • At the receiver
  • At the station power supply
  • At the microphone
slide43

T5A07What type of filter should be connected to a TV receiver as the first step in trying to prevent RF overload from a nearby 2-meter transmitter?

  • Low-pass filter
  • High-pass filter
  • Band pass filter
  • Notch filter
t5a08 what is connected between the transceiver and computer terminal in a packet radio station
T5A08What is connected between the transceiver and computer terminal in a packet radio station?
  • Transmatch
  • Mixer
  • Terminal Node Controller
  • Antenna
t5a09 which of these items is not required for a packet radio station
T5A09 Which of these items is not required for a packet radio station?
  • Antenna
  • Transceiver
  • Power source
  • Microphone
t5a10 what can be used to connect a radio with a computer for data transmission
T5A10 What can be used to connect a radio with a computer for data transmission?
  • Balun
  • Sound Card
  • Impedance matcher
  • Autopatch
t5b01 what may happen if a transmitter is operated with the microphone gain set too high
T5B01 What may happen if a transmitter is operated with the microphone gain set too high?
  • The output power will be too high
  • It may cause the signal to become distorted and unreadable
  • The frequency will vary
  • The SWR will increase
t5b02 what kind of information may a vhf uhf transceiver be capable of storing in memory
T5B02 What kind of information may a VHF/UHF transceiver be capable of storing in memory?
  • Transmit and receive operating frequency
  • CTCSS tone frequency
  • Transmit power level
  • All of these answers are correct
t5b03 what is one way to select a frequency on which to operate
T5B03 What is one way to select a frequency on which to operate?
  • Use the keypad or VFO knob to enter the correct frequency
  • Turn on the CTCSS encoder
  • Adjust the power supply ripple frequency
  • All of these answers are correct
t5b04 what is the purpose of the squelch control on a transceiver
T5B04 What is the purpose of the squelch control on a transceiver?
  • It is used to set the highest level of volume desired
  • It is used to set the transmitter power level
  • It is used to adjust the antenna polarization
  • It is used to quiet noise when no signal is being received
t5b05 what is a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver
T5B05 What is a way to enable quick access to a favorite frequency on your transceiver?
  • Enable the CTCSS tones
  • Store the frequency in a memory channel
  • Disable the CTCSS tones
  • Use the scan mode to select the desired frequency
slide52

T5B06What might you do to improve the situation if the station you are listening to is hard to copy because of ignition noise interference?

  • Increase your transmitter power
  • Decrease the squelch setting
  • Turn on the noise blanker
  • Use the RIT control
t5b07 what is the purpose of the buttons labeled up and down on many microphones
T5B07 What is the purpose of the buttons labeled "up" and "down" on many microphones?
  • To allow easy frequency or memory selection
  • To raise or lower the internal antenna
  • To set the battery charge rate
  • To upload or download messages
t5b08 what is the purpose of the shift control found on many vhf uhf transceivers
T5B08 What is the purpose of the "shift" control found on many VHF/UHF transceivers?
  • Adjust transmitter power level
  • Change bands
  • Adjust the offset between transmit and receive frequency
  • Change modes
t5b09 what does rit mean
T5B09 What does RIT mean?
  • Receiver Input Tone
  • Receiver Incremental Tuning
  • Rectifier Inverter Test
  • Remote Input Transmitter
t5b10 what is the purpose of the step menu function found on many transceivers
T5B10 What is the purpose of the "step" menu function found on many transceivers?
  • It adjusts the transmitter power output level
  • It adjusts the modulation level
  • It sets the earphone volume
  • It sets the tuning rate when changing frequencies
t5b11 what is the purpose of the function or f key found on many transceivers
T5B11 What is the purpose of the "function" or "F" key found on many transceivers?
  • It turns the power on and off
  • It selects the autopatch access code
  • It selects an alternate action for some control buttons
  • It controls access to the memory scrambler
t5c01 what is one purpose of a repeater
T5C01 What is one purpose of a repeater?
  • To cut your power bill by using someone else\'s higher power system
  • To extend the usable range of mobile and low-power stations
  • To transmit signals for observing propagation and reception
  • To communicate with stations in services other than amateur
t5c02 what is a courtesy tone
T5C02 What is a courtesy tone?
  • A tone used to identify the repeater
  • A tone used to indicate when a transmission is complete
  • A tone used to indicate that a message is waiting for someone
  • A tone used to activate a receiver in case of severe weather
t5c03 which of the following is the most important information to know before using a repeater
T5C03Which of the following is the most important information to know before using a repeater?
  • The repeater input and output frequencies
  • The repeater call sign
  • The repeater power level
  • Whether or not the repeater has an autopatch
t5c04 why should you pause briefly between transmissions when using a repeater
T5C04 Why should you pause briefly between transmissions when using a repeater?
  • To let your radio cool off
  • To reach for pencil and paper so you can take notes
  • To listen for anyone wanting to break in
  • To dial up the repeater\'s autopatch
t5c05 what is the most common input output frequency offset for repeaters in the 2 meter band
T5C05What is the most common input/output frequency offset for repeaters in the 2-meter band?
  • 0.6 MHz
  • 1.0 MHz
  • 1.6 MHz
  • 5.0 MHz
t5c06 what is the most common input output frequency offset for repeaters in the 70 centimeter band
T5C06What is the most common input/output frequency offset for repeaters in the 70-centimeter band?
  • 600 kHz
  • 1.0 MHz
  • 1.6 MHz
  • 5.0 MHz
t5c07 what is meant by the terms input and output frequency when referring to repeater operations
T5C07 What is meant by the terms input and output frequency when referring to repeater operations?
  • The repeater receives on one frequency and transmits on another
  • The repeater offers a choice of operating frequencies
  • One frequency is used to control the repeater and another is used to retransmit received signals
  • The repeater must receive an access code on one frequency before it will begin transmitting
t5c08 what is the meaning of the term simplex operation
T5C08 What is the meaning of the term simplex operation?
  • Transmitting and receiving on the same frequency
  • Transmitting and receiving over a wide area
  • Transmitting on one frequency and receiving on another
  • Transmitting one-way communications
t5c09 what is a reason to use simplex instead of a repeater
T5C09 What is a reason to use simplex instead of a repeater?
  • When the most reliable communications are needed
  • To avoid tying up the repeater when direct contact is possible
  • When an emergency telephone call is needed
  • When you are traveling and need some local information
slide67
T5C10How might you find out if you could communicate with a station using simplex instead of a repeater?
  • Check the repeater input frequency to see if you can hear the other station
  • Check to see if you can hear the other station on a different frequency band
  • Check to see if you can hear a more distant repeater
  • Check to see if a third station can hear both of you
slide68
T5C11What is the term for a series of repeaters that can be connected to one another to provide users with a wider coverage?
  • Open repeater system
  • Closed repeater system
  • Linked repeater system
  • Locked repeater system
slide69
T5C12What is the main reason repeaters should be approved by the local frequency coordinator before being installed?
  • Coordination minimizes interference between repeaters and makes the most efficient use of available frequencies
  • Coordination is required by the FCC
  • Repeater manufacturers have exclusive territories and you could be fined for using the wrong equipment
  • Only coordinated systems will be approved by the officers of the local radio club
t5c13 which of the following statements regarding use of repeaters is true
T5C13 Which of the following statements regarding use of repeaters is true?
  • All amateur radio operators have the right to use any repeater at any time
  • Access to any repeater may be limited by the repeater owner
  • Closed repeaters must be opened at the request of any amateur wishing to use it
  • Open repeaters are required to use CTCSS tones for access
slide71
T5C14 What term is used to describe a repeater when use is restricted to the members of a club or group?
  • A beacon station
  • An open repeater
  • A auxiliary station
  • A closed repeater
t5d01 what is meant by fundamental overload in reference to a receiver
T5D01 What is meant by fundamental overload in reference to a receiver?
  • Too much voltage from the power supply
  • Too much current from the power supply
  • Interference caused by very strong signals from a nearby source
  • Interference caused by turning the volume up too high
t5d02 which of the following is not a cause of radio frequency interference
T5D02 Which of the following is NOT a cause of radio frequency interference?
  • Fundamental overload
  • Doppler shift
  • Spurious emissions
  • Harmonics
t5d03 what is the most likely cause of telephone interference from a nearby transmitter
T5D03 What is the most likely cause of telephone interference from a nearby transmitter?
  • Harmonics from the transmitter
  • The transmitter\'s signals are causing the telephone to act like a radio receiver
  • Poor station grounding
  • Improper transmitter adjustment
slide75
T5D04 What is a logical first step when attempting to cure a radio frequency interference problem in a nearby telephone?
  • Install a low-pass filter at the transmitter
  • Install a high-pass filter at the transmitter
  • Install an RF filter at the telephone
  • Improve station grounding
slide76
T5D05 What should you do first if someone tells you that your transmissions are interfering with their TV reception?
  • Make sure that your station is operating properly and that it does not cause interference to your own television
  • Immediately turn off your transmitter and contact the nearest FCC office for assistance
  • Tell them that your license gives you the right to transmit and nothing can be done to reduce the interference
  • Continue operating normally because your equipment cannot possibly cause any interference
t5d07 which of the following may be useful in correcting a radio frequency interference problem
T5D07 Which of the following may be useful in correcting a radio frequency Interference problem?
  • Snap-on ferrite chokes
  • Low-pass and high-pass filters
  • Notch and band-pass filters
  • All of these answers are correct
slide78

T5D08 What is the proper course of action to take when a neighbor reports that your radio signals are interfering with something in his home?

  • You are not required to do anything
  • Contact the FCC to see if other interference reports have been filed
  • Check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice
  • Change your antenna polarization from vertical to horizontal
slide79
T5D09 What should you do if a "Part 15" device in your neighbor\'s home is causing harmful interference to your amateur station?
  • Work with your neighbor to identify the offending device
  • Politely inform your neighbor about the rules that require him to stop using the device if it causes interference
  • Check your station and make sure it meets the standards of good amateur practice
  • All of these answers are correct
slide80

T5D10 What could be happening if another operator tells you he is hearing a variable high-pitched whine on the signals from your mobile transmitter?

  • Your microphone is picking up noise from an open window
  • You have the volume on your receiver set too high
  • You need to adjust your squelch control
  • The power wiring for your radio is picking up noise from the vehicle\'s electrical system
slide81
T5D11 What may be the problem if another operator reports that your SSB signal is very garbled and breaks up?
  • You have the noise limiter turned on
  • The transmitter is too hot and needs to cool off
  • RF energy may be getting into the microphone circuit and causing feedback
  • You are operating on lower sideband
slide82
T5D12 What might be the problem if you receive a report that your signal through the repeater is distorted or weak?
  • Your transmitter may be slightly off frequency
  • Your batteries may be running low
  • You could be in a bad location
  • All of these answers are correct
slide83
T5D13 What is one of the reasons to use digital signals instead of analog signals to communicate with another station?
  • Digital systems are less expensive than analog systems
  • Many digital systems can automatically correct errors caused by noise and interference
  • Digital modulation circuits are much less complicated than any other types
  • All digital signals allow higher transmit power levels
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