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Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programs (REMP). HPT 001.037. Enabling Objectives. Objectives of REMP REMP Requirements Document Two Primary Pathways Parameters of Critical Pathway Analysis Importance of Preoperational Monitoring Direct Radiation Measurements

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Radiological Environmental Monitoring Programs (REMP)

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Radiological EnvironmentalMonitoring Programs (REMP)

HPT 001.037


Enabling Objectives

  • Objectives of REMP

  • REMP Requirements Document

  • Two Primary Pathways

  • Parameters of Critical Pathway Analysis

  • Importance of Preoperational Monitoring

  • Direct Radiation Measurements

  • Local, Perimeter, & Remote Stations


Enabling Objectives

  • Categories of Food Products

  • Water Sampling Technique

  • Categories of Fish

  • Quality Control Samples

  • Purpose of Land Use Survey

  • Predominant Fission/Activation Product

  • Results Report


REMP Objectives

  • Determine Plant Effects on People

  • Determine Trends of Radioactivity in the Environment

  • Provide Assurance to the Public

  • Meet Regulatory Requirements

  • Provide for Monitoring during Emergencies


REMP Bases

  • 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion 64 - Monitor Plant Environs for Radioactivity.

  • 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, Appropriate Monitoring to Evaluate Doses.

  • NRC Generic Letter 89-01 – Programmatic Controls in Tech Specs & ODCM


REMP Descriptions

  • FSAR – General Monitoring Program

  • Plant Technical Specifications – Administrative Controls.

  • Plant Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM) – Specific Requirements for the Monitoring Programs


Critical Pathways

  • Airborne Pathways

  • Waterborne Pathways


Airborne Pathways

  • Direct (Air)1. Direct Radiation2. Inhalation

  • Indirect (Ground or Terrestrial)1. Materials Deposited on Ground2. Materials Deposited on Plants and Ingested.


Waterborne Pathway

  • Ingestion of Water

  • Ingestion of Fish or other Aquatic Animals or Plants

  • Direct Exposure at the Shoreline


Pathways for Exposure


Parameters for aCritical Pathway Analysis

  • Dose Projections

  • Weather Patterns

  • Population Distribution

  • Land Use


Air-Related Pathways

DoseConc.LLDmRem/yr1. AirpCi/m3pCi/m3I-131 0.050.00240.0100Noble Gas 0.43

2. MilkpCi/LpCi/LI-131 0.090.050.503. VegetablespCi/KgpCi/KgI-131 0.620.211-8Sr-90 1.000.11 8Sr-89 0.701.00 40


RankingAir-Related Pathways

Based on Calculated Annual Dose (mRem/yr)

SrIodineNoble Gases

  • Vegetation(1.7) Milk (>1)(1.0 Sr-90) (Conservative(0.7 Sr-89) Assumptions)

  • Vegetation (0.62) Direct (0.43)

  • Inhalation (0.05) Milk (0.09) (Actual Location)


Dose Distribution – SQN

% of TotalMonitorsRank Dose Sector 1-10 Miles>10 Miles 1 19.1 SSWLM, PM 2 15.4 NNELM, PMRM 3 13.9 NELM 4 9.0 NLM, PM 5 9.0 SWPMRM 6 6.6 S 7 5.0 SSE 8 4.7 ENE 9 3.4 SE 10 3.0 NNW 11 2.5 WSWPM 12 2.3 E 13 2.2 ESERM 14 1.5 WPM 15 1.4 NW 16 0.9 WNWRM


Dose DistributionTimes Population - SQN

% of TotalRank DoseSectorMonitors, 1-10 Miles 1 19 SSWLM, PM 2 15 WSWPM 3 12 SWPM 4 9 NW 5 9 WPM 6 6 WNW 7 5 S 8 3 NNW 9 3 SSE 10 2 NLM 11 2 NNELM 12 2 SE 13 1 ESE 14 1 NELM 15 1 ENE 16 1 E


Water-Related Pathways

Annual DosemRem/yrConcentrationLLD

  • Water pCi/LpCi/LMF&AP 0.00230.0920 5-10I-131 0.00510.0036 1-8H-3 0.00012.0000 330Sr-90 0.00220.0004 2

  • FishpCi/gpCi/gMF&AP 0.38002.0000 0.01-0.10I-131 0.02100.0020 0.02Sr-90 0.00550.0001 0.10

    MF&AP = Mixed Fission & Activated Products


RankingWater-Related Pathways

Based on Calculated Annual Dose (mRem/yr)

IodineSrMF&AP

  • Fish (0.38)

  • Fish Ingestion (0.021)

  • WaterWaterWater Ingestion (0.0051) Ingestion (0.0022) IngestionFish (0.0055)(0.0023) MF&AP = Mixed Fission & Activated Products


PreoperationalMonitoring Program

  • Establish Background Radiation Levels

  • Identify Fluctuations in Background Data


Background Fluctuations

  • Seasonal

  • Annual

  • Random


Gross Beta in Air


ThermoluminescentDosimeter


Direct RadiationMonitoring


Atmospheric MonitoringStations

  • Local Monitors (LM) – On or Adjacent to the Site Boundary

  • Perimeter Monitors (PM) – 3-10 Miles from the Site

  • Remote Monitors (RM) – > 10 Miles from the Site


Air Monitor Station


Original Air Filter


Air FlowMeasuring Equipment


Present Air SampleCollector


Air Filter Assembly


Rainwater Collection Tray


One Type ofSoil Sampler


Typical Food Products - 1

  • Fresh Leafy Vegetables1. Lettuce2. Cabbage3. Greens

  • Other Vegetables1. Tomatoes2. Green Beans3. Corn


Typical Food Products - 2

  • Tubers1. Potatoes2. Turnips

  • Fruits1. Apples2. Peaches

  • Meat/Poultry1. Beef2. Chicken


Water Sampling Station


Fish Samples

  • Commercial Species1. Catfish2. Smallmouth Buffalo

  • Game Species1. Bass2. Crappie


Electrofishing


Sample Analyses

  • Gross Beta – Low Background Counter

  • I-131 Specific – Chemical Separation & Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

  • Sr-89,90 – Chemical Separation/Beta Ct.

  • Tritium – Liquid Scintillation Counting


Liquid ScintillationCounting


Sample Analyses

  • Gross Beta – Low Background Counter

  • I-131 Specific – Chemical Separation & Beta-Gamma Coincidence Counting

  • Sr-89,90 – Chemical Separation/Beta Ct.

  • Tritium – Liquid Scintillation Counting

  • Gamma – Gamma Spectroscopy1. Marinelli Beaker2. “Cottage Cheese” Type Container, Various

  • Charcoal Cartridge – High Resolution Gamma


Marinelli Beakers


Counting Solid Samples


Quality Control Program

  • Equipment Checks

  • Laboratory Cross Check Program with Outside Laboratory

  • Split Samples with AL, TN, & EPA

  • Quality Control Samples

  • Supervisors Review Trends/Problems


Quality Control Samples

  • Blank Samples

  • Duplicate Samples

  • Split Samples

  • Analytical Knowns

  • Blind Spikes

  • Internal Cross-Checks


Land Use Survey


Cs-137 in Soil


Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report

  • Site/Plant Descriptions

  • Monitoring Program Description

  • Assessment/Evaluation of Plant Impacts

  • Monitoring Program Modifications

  • Missed Samples/Analyses


Annual Radiological Environmental Operating Report

  • Analytical Procedures

  • Nominal Lower Limits of Detection (LLD)

  • Quality Assurance/Quality Control Program

  • Land Use Survey Results

  • Data Tables


Summary - Analysis

  • Critical Pathway Analysis Includes Dose Projections Based on:1. Dose Projections2. Weather Patterns3. Population Distribution4. Land Use


Summary - REMP

  • REMP Sampling1. Direct Radiation2. Atmospheric Media3. Terrestrial Media4. Waterborne Media

  • Quality Assurance/Quality Control

  • Land Use Survey

  • Annual Report to NRC


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