Definitions. Bleach-a strong smelling liquid containing chlorine that is used for disinfecting food contact surfaces and sanitizing plates and utensils.Contaminant-any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter or other substances not intentionally added to food that may compromise food safety or
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1. Jefferson County Health Department Food Training
2. Definitions Bleach-a strong smelling liquid containing chlorine that is used for disinfecting food contact surfaces and sanitizing plates and utensils.
Contaminant-any biological or chemical agent, foreign matter or other substances not intentionally added to food that may compromise food safety or suitability.
Disinfection-the reduction by means of chemical agents and/or physical methods, of the number of microorganisms in the environment, to a level that does not compromise food safety or suitability.
3. Definitions Foodborne disease-a general term used to describe any disease or illness caused by eating contaminated food or drink. Traditionally referred to as “food poisoning”.
Food contact surface-surfaces of equipment and utensils normally in contact with food.
Food handler-any person who directly handles packaged or unpacked food, food equipment and utensils or food contact surfaces, and is therefore expected to comply with food hygiene requirements.
4. Definitions Food safety-all measures to ensure that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared and/or eaten according to its intended use.
Microorganisms-microscopic organisms such as bacteria, molds, viruses and parasites, which may be found in the environment, in foods and on animals.
Ready-to-eat-food that is consumed without any further preparation, such as cooking, from the consumer.
5. What’s the Problem Every day people all over the world get sick from the food they eat. This sickness is called foodborne disease and is caused by dangerous microorganisms (germs) and or poisons.
Most foodborne disease is preventable with proper food handling.
6. What are Microorganisms? Microorganisms are very small living things, so small that they cannot be seen with the naked eye. It takes 1 million to cover the head of a pin.
Microorganisms are everywhere, but are mostly found in: feces; soil & water; rats, mice, insects and pests; domestic, marine and farm animals; human mouths, nose, intestines, hands, fingernails and skin.
7. Microorganisms Microorganisms or germs, rely on someone or something else to move them around.
The transfer of microorganisms from one surface to another is called cross contamination.
Hands are one of the most common ways of moving germs from one place to another.
8. Microorganisms Most germs grow by multiplication. To multiply, germs need:
One bacteria can become 2 in just 15
minutes. This means that within 6 hours it
has multiplied to over 16 million.
9. Foodborne Illness Every year, billions of people experience one or more episodes of foodborne disease, without ever knowing that their illness was caused by food. The most common symptoms are:
Symptoms may occur very quickly after eating the
food, or may take days or even weeks to appear. For
most foodborne disease, symptoms occur 24-72
hours after the food has been eaten
10. Poisonous Chemicals Germs are not the only cause of foodborne illness. People also get sick from poisonous chemicals, which include:
Metals and environmental pollutants
Chemicals used for treating animals
Improperly used pesticides
Chemicals used for cleaning
Simple things such as washing and peeling
fruit and vegetables may reduce the risk from
chemicals that are found on the surface of foods.
11. You Can Make a Difference Five key steps to safer food:
Separate raw and cooked food
Keep food at safe temperatures
Use safe water and raw materials
12. 1. Keep Clean Wash your hands before handling food and often during food preparation
Wash your hands after going to the restroom
Wash and sanitize all surfaces and equipment used for food preparation
Protect kitchen areas and food from insects, pests, and other animals
13. Hand washing Wear gloves when preparing food and change gloves often. If wearing gloves you still need to wash your hands.
Use soap and warm water and pay attention to finger tips, finger nails, wrists, and in between fingers. Wash your hands for at least 20 seconds.
Dry hands completely with a clean dry disposable towel.
14. Cleaning Plates and Utensils “Cleaning” and “sanitizing” are not the
Cleaning is the process of physically
removing dirt and food.
Sanitizing is the process of disinfecting or killing germs.
15. Plates and Utensils Scrape excess food into the trash can
Wash in hot water with detergent, using a clean cloth or brush to remove left-over food and grease
Rinse in clean hot water
Sanitize utensils with boiling water or with a sanitizing solution
Leave dishes and cooking utensils to air-dry.
16. Pests To protect food from rats, mice,
cockroaches and flies:
Keep food covered
Keep trash cans covered and emptied regularly
Keep food preparation areas in good condition
Use baits or pest control taking care not to contaminate food
17. 2. Separate Raw and Cooked Separate raw meat, poultry and seafood from other foods
Use separate equipment and utensils such as knives and cutting boards for handling raw food
Store food in containers to avoid contact between raw and prepared foods
18. 3. Cook Thoroughly Cook food thoroughly, especially meat, poultry, eggs and seafood
Bring food like soups and stews to boiling to make sure that they have reached 165°F. For meat and poultry, make sure that juices are clear, not pink
Reheat cooked food thoroughly to 165°F
19. Cooking Temperatures Food must reach a temperature of 165°F to ensure it is safe to eat. This temperature kills even high concentrations of germs
Use a thermometer to check that foods reach the correct temperature
20. Cooking Temperatures Place the thermometer in the center of the thickest part of the meat
Make sure the thermometer is not touching a bone or the side of the container
Make sure the thermometer is cleaned and sanitized between each use to avoid cross-contamination between raw and cooked food
21. 4. Keep Food at Safe Temperatures Do not leave cooked food at room temperature for more than 2 hours
Refrigerate promptly all cooked and perishable food
Keep cooked food for holding at 135°F or hotter
Keep cold food for holding at 41°F or colder
Keep food OUT of the “Danger Zone” which is a temperature between 41°F and 135°F
Do not store food too long even in the refrigeratator
Label all food for storage and discard after one week if not used.
22. 5. Use Safe Water and Raw Materials Choose foods processed for safety, such as pasteurized milk
Wash fruit and vegetables especially if eaten raw
Do not use food beyond its expiration date
Raw materials, including water and ice may be contaminated with dangerous germs and chemicals. Care in selection of raw materials is needed to reduce foodborne illness
Avoid food that is damaged or rotting
23. Food Delivery Refuse any dented, bulging or leaking cans
Refuse any potentially hazardous foods delivered above 41°F
Refuse any fresh fish that is packed in melted ice
Refuse breads, fruits or vegetables that are rotting, damaged or moldy
Put away all deliveries ASAP
Remember, First In, First Out when storing food
Store raw meats, fish, and poultry on the bottom shelves in the cooler
24. What To Do Before and Inspection Do your own self-inspection and check
Check the temperature of products when they arrive, when they are stored and when they are served
Food-type guidelines are divided into three categories:
Beef and Beef Blood
And all other food types
THESE 3 CATEGORIES CAN NEVER TOUCH EACH OTHER
25. Self-Inspection Emphasize the importance of hand washing with staff and post signs at all kitchen sinks and in restrooms
Ensure your managers are up-to-date on the latest food safety techniques
After your inspection hold a 10 minute meeting with staff to review your findings
26. Health Department Inspection Do not refuse an inspection, the examiner will get an inspection warrant that you cannot refuse
Go along with the inspector and take notes of violations.
Refrain from offering food or beverage
Sign the inspection sheet after the inspection. Signing it does not mean you agree, it only means that you received a copy of the report
Ask any question you have
27. If Sited for a Violation If your establishment is cited for 3 or more uncorrected critical violations the inspector can close the establishment immediately
Fix small problems during the inspection when possible
If you don’t understand the violation, ask the health inspector to explain
Help the inspector as much as possible, the inspector is your ally. He can help improve your establishment. World Health Organization, 2006