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Effects of anaphora and other kinds of repetition, punctuation, appositive, parallel structure and clauses. AP Language and Composition. Repetition.

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Effects of anaphora and other kinds of repetition, punctuation, appositive, parallel structure and clauses

AP Language and Composition


Repetition
Repetition

  • Repetition is the simple repeating of a word, within a sentence or a poetical line, with no particular placement of the words, in order to emphasize.

  • It also has connotations to listing for effect and is used commonly by famous writers.

  • “ Today, as never before, the fates of men are so intimately linked to one another that a disaster for one is a disaster for everybody.

  • (Natalia Ginzburg, The Little Virtues, 1962)


Anaphora
Anaphora

Repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses, sentences, or lines.  

  • Example: This royal throne of kings, this haunting isle, This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,


Punctuation
Punctuation

  • Punctuation marks are symbols that indicate the structure and organization written language, as well as intonation and pauses to be observed when reading aloud.

    Ex: The Panda eats shoots and leaves and The Panda eats, shoots, and leaves.


Appositive
Appositive

  • An appositive is a noun, noun phrase, or series of nouns used to identify or rename another noun, noun phrase, or pronoun.

    The Otis Elevator Company, the world’s oldest and biggest elevator manufacturer, claims that its products carry the equivalent of the world’s population every five days.


Parallel structure
Parallel Structure

  • Parallel structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance.

  • This can happen at the word, phrase, or clause level.

  • The usual way to join parallel structures is with the use of coordinating conjunctions such as "and" or "or.“

  • With the -ing form (gerund) of words:

  • Parallel: Mary likes hiking, swimming, and bicycling.

  • With infinitive phrases:

  • Parallel: Mary likes to hike, to swim, and to ride a bicycle.ORMary likes to hike, swim, and ride a bicycle.


Independent clauses
Independent Clauses

  • Independent Clause

  • An independent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb and expresses a complete thought.

  • An independent clause is a sentence.

    Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz.


Dependent clauses
Dependent Clauses

  • Dependent Clause

  • A dependent clause is a group of words that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. A dependent clause cannot be a sentence.

  • When Jim studied in the Sweet Shop for his chemistry quiz . . . (What happened when he studied? The thought is incomplete.)


Dependent clauses1
Dependent Clauses

  • Some common dependent markers are: after, although, as, as if, because, before, even if, even though, if, in order to, since, though, unless, until, whatever, when, whenever, whether, and while.


Compound complex sentences
Compound-Complex Sentences

  • are made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

  • "I never liked long walks, especially on chilly afternoons: dreadful to me was the coming home in the raw twilight, with nipped fingers and toes, and a heart saddened by the chidings of Bessie, the nurse, and humbled by the consciousness of my physical inferiority to Eliza, John, and Georgiana Reed" .


Lincoln s second inaugural address
Lincoln’s second inaugural address

  • Read Lincoln’s second inaugural address and annotate first

  • Write essay analyzing rhetorical strategies

  • Are you noticing the rhetorical strategies we discussed today within his speech!

  • You are free to use your Style Chart as well focusing especially on Syntax.

  • HMWK: complete essay, typed up 12pt. Font Times New Roman, double spaced


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