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The Great War (WWI) (World War I). Mr. W. I. Underlying Causes to WWI. A. Underlying Causes 1. Nationalism a. strong feelings for one’s own country b. desire of a subjugated people to throw off foreign rule and create their own nation

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The Great War (WWI) (World War I)

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The great war wwi world war i

The Great War(WWI)(World War I)

Mr. W.


I underlying causes to wwi

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

A. Underlying Causes

1. Nationalism

a. strong feelings for one’s own country

b. desire of a subjugated people to throw off foreign rule and create their own nation

(ex  Serbia wanted to be independent of the Austria-Hungary Empire)


I underlying causes to wwi1

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

2. Imperialism

a. struggle for colonies- major powers of the world were engaged in a race for empires

b. the “haves” vs. the “have nots”


I underlying causes to wwi2

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

3. Militarism

- Build up of arms

-the policy of glorifying military power and keeping a standing army always prepared for war.


I underlying causes to wwi3

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

4. System of Alliances

a. Balance of Power System- every country tried to increase its own strength by securing as many allies as possible


I underlying causes to wwi4

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

b. Triple Alliance:

Germany,

Austria-Hungary,

Italy

(allies before WWI)


I underlying causes to wwi5

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

c. Triple Entente:

Great Britain,

France,

Russia

(allies before WWI)


I underlying causes to wwi6

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

B. Early 1900: Efforts to maintain world peace

1. World Peace Conferences

1. Mediation - 2 or more nations engaged in dispute ask disinterested (neutral) 3rd party to “recommend” a solution.


I underlying causes to wwi7

I. Underlying Causes to WWI

2. Arbitration – 2 or more disputing nations agree in advance to accept the decision of a neutral party.


Ii world war i breaks out in europe

II. World War I Breaks out in Europe

  • Look at all the different ethnic groups. Should they be put into one country?


Ii world war i breaks out in europe1

II. World War I Breaks out in Europe

A. Immediate Cause

1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand:

- heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary

-he was visiting Sarajevo, which had a lot of Serbian militants, seeking independence for the territory


Ii world war i breaks out in europe2

II. World War I Breaks out in Europe

  • Gavrilo Princip was a nineteen-year-old militant Bosnian Serb who had been part of the assassination attempts on Frendinand earlier that morning.

  • Princip randomly ended up next to Ferdninand’s car, stepped up to the car’s window and shot both the archduke and his wife at point-blank range.

  • Princip and other Serbs wanted their own independent country.


Ii world war i breaks out in europe3

II. World War I Breaks out in Europe

C. Allied Powers (Allies):

Russia

Great Britain

France


Ii world war i breaks out in europe4

II. World War I Breaks out in Europe

D. Central Powers:

Austria-Hungary

Germany

Ottoman Empire

(old Turkish empires, slowly fading out)

(Italy dropped out of their former alliance with these powers)


Iii u s attempts to remain neutral

III. U.S. Attempts to Remain Neutral

A. President Woodrow Wilson urges Americans to remain neutral

1. Many Americans have relatives on both sides

2. Mixed feelings about the 2 sides, but most agree with Wilson about neutrality


Iii u s attempts to remain neutral1

III. U.S. Attempts to Remain Neutral

B. British Blockade

1. The British blockade the German coast in an effort to restrict the maritime supply of raw materials and foodstuffs to the Central Powers.

2. mines are in the North sea

3. Blockade neutral countries through which American goods were sold to Germany

 also to Norway, Sweden, Denmark


Iii u s attempts to remain neutral2

III. U.S. Attempts to Remain Neutral

Germans react to blockade:

-In early in 1916, Germany had instituted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, allowing armed merchant ships – but not passenger ships – to be torpedoed without warning.


Iii u s attempts to remain neutral3

III. U.S. Attempts to Remain Neutral

C. German U-Boats

1. U-Boats policed the Atlantic

2. RMS Lusitania sunk March 1915

-It was a British Ocean liner

a. 1198 lives lost including 128 Americans

 turning point in U.S. attitude toward war

b. Germans promise to stop sinking/attacking ships


Iii u s attempts to remain neutral4

III. U.S. Attempts to Remain Neutral

3. Sussex sunk,

A French passenger ship was attacked March 1916

a. After breaking their pledge, Germans renew promise to stop sinking ships

4. February, 1917

 Germans resume unrestricted warfare


Iii u s attempts to remain neutral5

III. U.S. Attempts to Remain Neutral

D. The Zimmerman Note

Feb. 24, 1917

1. The note was a message from German Foreign Secretary (Alfred Zimmerman) to Ger. Minister in Mexico

2. It offered Mexico an alliance with Ger. 

with Ger. Support, Mexico could attach the U.S. and regain New Mexico, Texas, Arizona


Iv us enters wwi

IV. US Enters WWI

A. U.S. Declares War  April, 1917

1. Wilson encourages a “war to end wars… a war to make the world safe for democracy…”

2. U.S. methods for preparing for war:


Iv us enters wwi1

IV. US Enters WWI

A. Raise Army: selective service act, ages 21-30 (draft)

B. Finance the War: war bonds, income taxes, and excise taxes help finance the war (the gov. borrowed money from people)


Iv us enters wwi2

IV. US Enters WWI

C. Mobilize Industry: War Industries Board converted regular industries to wartime industries. (ex.->Instead of making pots/pans, make ammunition)


Iv us enters wwi3

IV. US Enters WWI

D. Secure Support of Public Opinion: Committee of Public Information informed the public about the war, created posters and propaganda supporting the US in the war


Iv us enters wwi4

IV. US Enters WWI

E. Control Dissent: Espionage Act aimed at treasonable and disloyal actions (go after those tricky spies, fear of communism)


V wwi warfare

V. WWI Warfare

  • Trench Warfare

    1. Battle in the Trenches:

    - Troops dug themselves in trenches and relied on new weapons.

    - The rapid-fire machine gun could easily hold off attacking forces


V wwi warfare1

V. WWI Warfare

1. Battle in the Trenches:

- On the Western Front, troops dug a network of trenches from the English Channel to the Swiss border.

”No Man’s Land”:

- was the rough, barren landscape with artillery craters in between the trench lines.


V wwi warfare2

V. WWI Warfare

  • 2. World War Firsts

    1. Aerial Combat, 1914

    - War takes to the air. Two allied aircraft chase to German planes across Britain.

    - Aerial combat becomes a norm of the war

    - “The Red Baron” Manfred von Richthofen, Germany’s ace pilot, was shot down 1918.


V wwi warfare3

V. WWI Warfare

  • 2.World War Firsts

    2. Gas Attacks, 1915

    - The German High Command admits to using chlorine gas bombs and shells on the field of combat.

    - Deadly mustard gas is used in 1917.


V wwi warfare4

V. WWI Warfare

  • 2. World War Firsts

    3. Donkey’s Ears

    - A new trench periscope enables soldiers to observe the battleground from the relative safety of a trench without risking sniper fire.


V wwi warfare5

V. WWI Warfare

  • 2. World War Firsts

    4. Big Bertha

    - Enormous howitzer gun bombards Paris

    - “Big Bertha,” named after the wife of its manufacturer, is thought to be located 63 miles behind German lines.

    - Moving at night on RR tracks, the gun is difficult for the allies to locate.


V wwi warfare6

V. WWI Warfare

3. How to Make a Doughboy

- Looking at one American Infantryman

1.) Arm with 107 pieces of fighting equipment

-rifle -rifle cartridges

-gas mask -clubs

-knives -grenades

-steel helmet-trench tool

-bayonet and scabbard

-cartridge belt


V wwi warfare7

V. WWI Warfare

2. Add 50 articles of clothing, including 3 wool blankets and a bedsack.

3. Equip with eating utensils and 11 cooking implements.

4. Train well.

TOTAL COST: $156.30

(not including training and trans.)


V wwi warfare8

V. WWI Warfare

4. The Convoy System:

- The process of putting merchant ships and troop transports into groups and be escorted across the Atlantic by warships.

- This greatly reduced the number of ships being attacked b/c of the warship escorts.

5. General John J. Pershing:

- was the commander of the American forces in WWI


Vi results of wwi

VI. Results of WWI

1. War Casualties

WWI Military Deaths:

AlliesDeaths

Russia1,700,000

France1,385,000

Britain908,400

Italy650,000

Romania335,700

U.S.107,000

Bulgaria87,500

Others74,200


Vi results of wwi1

VI. Results of WWI

1. War Casualties

WWI Military Deaths:

Central PowersDeaths

Germany1,773,000

Austria Hungary1,200,000

Ottoman Empire325,000


Vi results of wwi2

VI. Results of WWI

2. End of the War

- The war ended on the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month in 1918.

-This day (11/11/1918) was known an Armistice: or a cease fire, that Germany had signed that stopped the fighting in the war.


Vi results of wwi3

VI. Results of WWI

2. End of the War

- Even though the fighting stopped in 1918, the official ending of the war wasn’t until 1919.

- The Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany on June 28, 1919 in Versailles, France. This was the official end of WWI.


Vi results of wwi4

VI. Results of WWI

3. Wilson’s 14 Points

- President Wilson did not want harsh penalties for the countries that started the war.

- Wilson wanted to promote “the principles of justice to all people and nationalities.

-Wilson presented his peace plan to congress in 1918. It was called Fourteen Points.


Vi results of wwi5

VI. Results of WWI

Fourteen Points:

Points 1-5 were about free trade, disarmament, free seas, open diplomacy, anti-imperialism

Points 6-13 were about the right to self-determination for countries and central powers breaking up their empires

Point 14 might have been the most important point. It called for a League of Nations


Vi results of wwi6

VI. Results of WWI

The League of Nations:

- Wilson called for the creation of a “general association of nations”

- Wilson hoped that this organization would help promote world peace

- The Senate and some of the American public rejected the League of Nations. Congress felt that the League could be too powerful and supersede congress when it came to declaring war.

- The League of Nations was created after the Treaty of Versailles, but the U.S. did not join the organization.


Vi results of wwi7

VI. Results of WWI

4. The Treaty of Versailles

- The “Big Four” nations of the allies came together to decide on the peace treaty (USA, Italy, France, Britain).

-Germany was not invited to participate.

- Britain, Italy and France wanted harsh punishments for Germany in their defeat.


Vi results of wwi8

VI. Results of WWI

3. The Treaty of Versailles

-The treaty forced Germany to pay Reparations, or war damages, in the amount of $33 billion to the allies.

-This amount was far beyond Germany’s financial means.

- The most humiliating part of the treaty forced Germany to accept fault for starting the war and the guilt of the devastation it caused.


Vi results of wwi9

VI. Results of WWI

3. The Treaty of Versailles

- The treaty broke-up four empires:

-Russian Empire

-Ottoman Empire

-German Empire

-Austria Hungary

- Nine new countries were created (Poland, Czech. etc.)

-Germany felt humiliated and unfairly punished for the war.


Vi results of wwi10

VI. Results of WWI

A young German started to rise to power blaming certain people for their defeat in WWI…


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