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STATUS OF AMANDA AND ICECUBE. Carlos de los Heros Division of High Energy Physics Uppsala University Partikeldagarna Karlstad, March 31st-April 1st 2004. The AMANDA/ICECUBE Collaborations. Bartol Research Institute UC Berkeley UC Irvine Pennsylvania State UW Madison

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Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

STATUS OF AMANDA AND ICECUBE

Carlos de los Heros

Division of High Energy Physics

Uppsala University

Partikeldagarna

Karlstad, March 31st-April 1st 2004


The amanda icecube collaborations

The AMANDA/ICECUBE Collaborations

Bartol Research Institute

UC Berkeley

UC Irvine

Pennsylvania State

UW Madison

UW River Falls

LBNL Berkeley

150 members

U. Simón Bolivar, Caracas

VUB-IIHE, Brussel

ULB-IIHE, Bruxelles

Université de Mons-Hainaut

Imperial College, London

DESY, Zeuthen

Mainz Universität

+University of Maryland, US

Clark-Atlanta University, US

Southern University, US

IAS, Princeton, US

University of Alabama, US

University of Oxford, UK

University of Utrecht, NL

Chiba University, Japan

U. of Canterbury, Christchutch, NZ

as ICECUBE members

Wuppertal Universität

Stockholm Universitet

Uppsala Universitet

Kalmar Universitet

South Pole Station


Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

Number of institutions

Chiba, ICL, Utrecht

Caracas, Alabama

Canterbury

Mons, Maryland, River Falls

Clark-Atlamta, IAS, Southern, Kansas

Brussels, VUB ULB Mainz, Wuppertal

UC Irvine, Stockholm ,Uppsala

IceCube

LBNL, Penn

UC Berkeley, Wisconsin

Bartol

DESY

AMANDA


The swedish groups

THE SWEDISH GROUPS

  • Uppsala: Finance

    • O. Botner UU/VR

    • A. Hallgren UU/VR

    • C. de los Heros VR

    • A. Bouchta VR

      Grad students:

    • A. Davour

    • J. Lundberg

    • A. Pohl

      Technicians:

    • B. Hagberg (35%)

      Grants:

    • Travel VR 325kSEK 02-04

    • C.d.l.H. VR 135kSEK/yr (02-05)

  • Stockholm: Finance

    • P. O. Hulth SU

    • K. Hultqvist SU/VR

    • C. Walck SU/VR

    • S. Hundertmark SU

    • C. Bohm SU

      Grad students:

    • Y. Minaeva

    • T. Burgess

    • C. Wiedemann

    • P. Ekström

      Technicians:

    • L. Thollander (100%)

      Grants:

    • Travel VR 650kSEK 02-04

36 MSEK (VR+Wallenberg) for IceCube instrumentation (managed by SU+UU)


Neutrino astronomy

NEUTRINO ASTRONOMY

  • Cosmic rays @ >>TeV exist

     acceleration sites must sit somewhere

  • SNe remnants

  • Active Galactic Nuclei

  • Gamma Ray Burst

  • Exotics (decays of topological defects...)

explained

by SN

proton acceleration

?

unexplained

  • Guaranteed sources:

  • atmospheric neutrinos (from p & K mesons decay)

  • galactic plane:

    • CR interacting with ISM, concentrated on the disk

  • cosmological neutrinos:

    • extragalactic origin of UHECR: p g D+ n p+ (p p0)

  • Neutrinos: not absorbed, not deflected:

     difficult to detect

  • Protons: deflected in magnetic fields, GZK

  • g-rays: propagate straight, however:

    • reprocessed in sources

    • absorbed in IR (100 TeV) and 3K (10 PeV)


The amanda detector

O(km) long muon tracks

 15 m

 constant

detectability

for E-2 source

THE AMANDA DETECTOR

determination of the trajectory

by Cherenkov light timing

19 strings

677 PMTs

trigger rate: 80 Hz

noise rate: 1 kHz

  • up/down  10-5 background from

  • a) misreconstructed atmospheric muons

  • b) coincident muons

  • muon range scales with log(Em)

  • sCC/En cte up to 10 TeV


Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

THE SITE

geographic South Pole

AMANDA

2km deep


Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

DAILY WORK COMMUTE. NO TRAFFIC JAMS


Detector medium ice properties

DETECTOR MEDIUM: ICE PROPERTIES

  • Bubbles vs. depth

  • Dust layers

  • Drill-hole bubbles

ice optical parameters:

labs ~ 110 m @ 400 nm

lscatt ~ 20 m @ 400 nm

drill studies

atmospheric muons

in-situ light sources


All flavour detection

~ 5 m

ALL FLAVOUR DETECTION

Electromagnetic and hadronic cascades

  •  : oscillation + regeneration at PeV

  •  important

  • no EM / hadronic cascade differentiation

  • (even if slightly different shape and lower

  • light output for hadronic cascades)


Detector capabilities

 effective area

(schematic):

-interaction in earth,

detector response

En 2

100 GeV 100 TeV 100 PeV

DETECTOR CAPABILITIES

  • muons:

    • directional error: 2.0° - 2.5°

    • energy resolution:0.3 – 0.4

    • coverage: 2

  • primary cosmic rays:(+ SPASE2)

    • energy resolution:0.07 – 0.10

  • „cascades“: (e±,  , neutral current)

    • zenith error: 30° - 40°

    • energy resolution:0.1 – 0.2 (5TeV < E < 5 PeV)

    • coverage:4

5m2

3 cm2


Amanda physics topics

AMANDA PHYSICS TOPICS

Cosmology /Particle Physics/Astrophysics

  • Dark matter / exotic particles: neutralinos, magnetic monopoles, extra dim.

    • solar WIMP’s signature: Excess from the Sun direction

    • heavy and slow particles

  • primary CR spectrum / charm production

  •  atmospheric muons / neutrinos (also calibration of Amanda)

  •  CR composition (with surface detector SPASE-2)

  • cosmogenic flux: top-down scenario from topological decays

  •  extra-terrestrial diffuse flux

  • CR origin / acceleration sites (AGN, GRBs)

  •  extra-terrestrial flux (diffuse / punctual / transient)

  • SN monitor of the milky way

  •  low energyEM cascades (global noise increase throughout Amanda)


  • Swedish activities

    SWEDISH ACTIVITIES

    • Physics analyses:

      • Dark matter searches (WIMP, K-K, Simpzillas). AD, YM, CPH, TB, PE

      • UHE neutrinos. SH, CW

      • Point source searches. JL

      • Monopole searches. AP

    • Software

      • AMANDA simulation. SH, CW

      • IceCube simulation/reconstruction. SH, AB, TB, CW

    • Management

      • IceCube collaboration board. PO, OB

      • PO Icecube spokesperson

      • KH IceCube simulation coordinator

      • AH AMANDA analysis coordinator

      • CdlH AMANDA software coordinator

    • Hardware

      • AMANDA trigger (AH, Pawel Marcinewski)

      • AMANDA amplifiers (PO, LT)


    Tev pev diffuse flux

    „AGN“ with 10-5 E-2

    GeV-1 cm-2 s-1 sr-1

    atm.

    Exp.

    cut

    TeV-PeV DIFFUSE FLUX

    • data sample ’97

    • hit channels multiplicity as energy indicator

    • cuts optimized for best sensitivity

    assuming a E-2 flux (6 TeV < En < 1 PeV) :

    NO EXCESS OBSERVED

    E2nm(E) < 8.4 10-7 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

    PRL 90 (2003), 251101


    Diffuse flux cascades

    DIFFUSE FLUX (cascades)

    • 2000 data sample, 197 days lifetime

    • sim. BG:

    • atm. muons

    • atm. neutrinos

    PRELIMINARY

    no earth

    propagation

    effects

    nt

    nm

    ne


    Diffuse flux cascades1

    DIFFUSE FLUX (cascades)

    • sensitivity to all three flavors

    • some AGN core models discarded

    • assuming a E-2 flux

    • (50 TeV < En < 5 PeV):

    PRELIMINARY

    SDSS

    UHE analysis

    E2all (E) < 8.6·10 – 7 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

    (e::=1:1:1)

    MPR

    paper internally refereed

    From data sample ’97, 130 days lifetime (5 TeV < En < 300 TeV):

    E2all (E) < 9.8·10– 6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

    (e::=1:1:1)

    E2ne(E) < 6.5·10– 6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

    Phys. Rev. D67, 2003


    Uhe neutrinos

    n

    m

    10-6 E-2

    Neural Net Parameter „NN2“ for neutrino vs.atm muon separation

    assuming a E-2 flux (1 PeV < En < 3 EeV) :

    NO EXCESS OBSERVED

    E2all (E) < 1.510-6 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1

    (e::=1:1:1)

    paper in progress

    UHE neutrinos

    downward muons and muons close to horizon

    PRELIMINARY

    Experiment

    CORSIKA MC

    R> 10 km

    Simulated UHE event

    • data sample ’97

    • (131 days acquisition)

    • uncertainties on

    • neutrino cross section

    • muon propagation

    • primary flux normalization

    • & elemental composition


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    POINT SOURCE SEARCHES

    below horizon: mostly

    atmospheric ‘s

    (this means northern sky)

    Search for an event excess in the northern sky

     grid: sky subdivided into 300 bins ~7°x7°

    • cuts optimized in each declination band

    • sensitivity  flat up to horizon,

    • (in average 4 times better than 1997 analysis,

    above horizon:mostly fake events

    Astrophys. J. 583, 2003)

    699 neutrino events observed from below the horizon (2000 data)

    <10% non-neutrino background for >5°

    no clustering observed:

    no evidence for point sources

    declination averaged sensitivity (integrated above 10 GeV) :

    lim  2.3·10-8 cm-2s-1

    upper limits in units of 10-7cm-2s-1

    integrated above En=10 GeV, for an assumed E-2 spectral shape

    Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 2004


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    FLUX LIMITS ON SELECTED SOURCES

    upper limits in units of 10-8cm-2s-1 for an assumed E-2 spectral shape integrated above En=10 GeV

    Sensitivity at the level of TeV g-ray flux (’97 active state)

    AMANDA-II achieved the sensitivity to search for neutrinos from TeV g-ray sources (n/g~1)


    Search for correlated with grbs

    assuming Waxmann-Bahcall spectrum

    (EB at 100 TeV and G = 300) :

    NO EXCESS OBSERVED

    4.8 x 10-8 GeV s-1 cm-2 sr-1

    SEARCH FOR CORRELATED WITH GRBs

    10 min

    Low background due to space and time coincidence

    PRELIMINARY

    • analysis is blind: finalized off-source

    • (±5 min) with MC signal

    • <20° + other event quality parameters

    • BG stability required within ±1 hour from burst

    effective -area  50000 m2


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    WIMPS FROM THE SUN

    analysis possible thanks to improved reconstruction capability for horizontal tracks, compared to Amanda B-10

    • Sensitivity on the muon flux coming from neutralino annihilations in the center of the Sun:

    • (soft channel)

    • (hard channel)

    Exclusion sensitivity

    from analyzing the

    off-source bins

    Best sensitivity of existing indirect searches


    Atmospheric neutrinos with amanda

    ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRINOS WITH AMANDA

    Atmospheric muons and neutrinos: AMANDA‘s test beams

    PRELIMINARY

    • Neural network energy reconstruction

    • regularized unfolding

    •  spectrum up to 100 TeV

    • results compatible with Frejus data

    Possible to use the energy spectrum to study excess due to cosmic ‘s


    Amanda publications yr

    AMANDA Publications/yr


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    ICECUBE


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    ICETOP: COINCIDENT EVENTS

    • Two functions

      • veto and calibration

      • cosmic-ray physics

    • Energy range:

      • ~3 x 1014 -- 1018 eV

      • few to thousands of muons per event

    • Large solid angle

      • One IceTop station per hole

      • ~ 0.5 sr for C-R physics with “contained” trajectories

      • Larger aperture as veto


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    ICECUBE STRING AND DOM

    HV Base

    Flasher

    Board

    Main Board

    OM spacing 17m

    10” PMT

    13” Glass sphere

    • 3 Production and testing Facilities

      • UW-Madison (PSL)

      • DESY (Germany)

      • Stockholm/Uppsala (Sweden)


    Production schedule

    PRODUCTION SCHEDULE

    We start now!


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    AMANDA-II

    TRACK RECONSTRUCTION IN A LOW NOISE ENVIRONMENT

    10 TeV

    • Typical event: 30 - 100 PMT fired

    • Track length: 0.5 - 1.5 km

    • Flight time: ≈ 4 µsecs

    • Accidental noise pulses:

      10 p.e. / 5000 PMT/4µsec

      Important Detector Parameters (astro/ph:0305196):

    • Angular resolution: 0.7 degrees

    • Effective muon detector area:

      1 km (after background suppression)

    1 km


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    ENERGY RECONSTRUCTION

    Eµ=6 PeV ≈ 1000 hits

    Small detectors: Muon energy is difficult to measure because of fluctuations in dE/dx

    IceCube: Integration over large sampling and scattering of light reduces the

    fluctuations in energy loss. --> Require large dynamic range in amplitude.

    Eµ=10 TeV ≈ 90 hits


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    RECENT RESULTS

    • Four Digital Optical Modules (DOM) plus a DOM Hub are collecting IceTop data using test software

      • Successfully synchronized with GPS time

      • Data compared with SPASE

    • Successfully transferring data from the DOM to DOM Hub to Data Collection program @ PSL

      • Remotely setting DOM parameters

      • Recording DOM Monitor, Configuration, and PMT hit data for analysis by DOM Test software

      • Involves software developed at LBNL, UW and PSU


    Outlook

    OUTLOOK

    • First results from AMANDA-II published

    • papers from analysis of 97-2000+ data in progress

    • combined analysis ’00-’03 on their way

    • Amanda-II detector shows greatly improved capabilities

    • digitized readout since 2003: waveform resolution

    • ice description mature

    • first IceCube strings in 2004/05


    Carlos de los heros division of high energy physics uppsala university partikeldagarna

    Feb 2004

    U.S. contribution

    $266.7M

    Non-U.S. contribution

    ~$30.2M

    Total Project Cost

    $296M

    PROJECT COST


    Spase amanda cr composition

    SPASE-2

    AMANDA

     composition change around the knee

    paper in preparation

    SPASE/AMANDA: CR composition

    SPASE-2  electron

    AMANDA B10  muon

    Iron

    AMANDA (number of muons)

    Proton

    log(E/PeV)

    SPASE-2 (number of electrons)

    Amanda-B10 / Spase-2 calibration: accepted


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