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환경시스템분석 , 기말고사 , 2012 년도 1 학기 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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환경시스템분석 , 기말고사 , 2012 년도 1 학기. 학과 : 환경공학과 학번 :20081503 이름 : 허진호. 1. Streeter-Phelps, Modified Streeter-Phelps, Linear DO Balance, Eutrophication 등의 모형에 있어서 주 모델링 항목은 무엇인가 ? WASP7 등의 선택적 모델링 기법에서에서의 주 모델링 항목 혹은 주 수질 변수 (primary water quality variables) 는 다음과 같다 .

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환경시스템분석 , 기말고사 , 2012 년도 1 학기

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2012 1

,

,

2012 1

:

:20081503

:


2012 1

1. Streeter-Phelps, Modified Streeter-Phelps, Linear DO Balance, Eutrophication ?

WASP7 (primary water quality variables) .

Streeter-Phelps : BOD, DO :

Modified Streeter-Phelps : CBOD, NBOD, DO, SOD

Linear DO Balance ( DO ) : CBOD, NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, PO4-P, DO

Eutrophication : CBOD, Org-N, NH3-N, NO2-N, NO3-N, Org-P,

PO4-P, Phytoplankton(Chl-a)

2. , . BOD .

, , . , . .


2012 1

, .

, V , C , Q , . (2) (dQ/dt=0) .

, (dA/dx=0) . , (V=Ax) .


2012 1

x->0 , .

Q/A , (5) , .

, 0, .

.

1 , .


2012 1

3. BOD .

0.4 ms-1 , , BOD log . .


2012 1

1)

BOD , BOD . .

, (Q/A).

.

.

x=0 C0 x C . .


2012 1

(1)

, .

, .

2)

(1) .

BOD / ln y / x . . , BOD . .

. Excel Regression() .


2012 1

BOD ln() ( ) .


2012 1

(a) BOD (mg/L) ; km (b) , BOD x/u (c) BOD .

4. , ().

1) , , 1 .

2) , . ( .)

q,a,r , , .

1). .


2012 1

1 ( ) () , (a-q) .


2012 1

2). .

1 ( ) , .


2012 1

5. .

, , . .

(Q+Q) (C+C) , .

() , 0 ( ) , (V=Ax) .


2012 1

3 , , .

.

(18) 1 . , .

, .

.


2012 1

1 ( ) () , (a-q) . .

1 ( ) , .


2012 1

6. Streeter-Phelps . .

1)

1925, Streeter and Phelps sag curve . (BOD) , Streeter-Phelps , .

BOD , 1 . , , 1 .

, L= BOD , = , = 1 ( ).

, .


2012 1

.

CBOD DO .

, C= , L= BOD , Cs= , ML-3

Ka= 1 . .


2012 1

Streeter-Phelps , BOD DO . , BOD BOD (L) , L DO , . BOD (21) (25) (26) . :

(25)

(26)

DO .


2012 1

.


2012 1

, ; q(t) ; y ; t . , .

.

1, , , BOD , . .


2012 1

Streeter-Phelps D.O. sag curve, : BOD . : D.O. , . : D.O. sag curve Xc .

2)

(X=Xc), , (dC/dx) (dD/dx) 0 . dD/dx=0 , .

, , .

, .


2012 1

, (Xc) .

0 (D.O. ), .


2012 1

7. BOD DO , DO . .

Streeter-Phelps CBOD , CBOD ( ) . , BOD . TSS 30mg/L, CBOD 30 mg/L . TSS BOD . CBOD , . Streeter Phelps .


2012 1

, kr= CBOD =ks+kd .,

Streeter-Phelps .

(65)

Streeter-Phelps kr kd . DO (DO "sag" ) Streeter-Phelps , CBOD .


2012 1

CBOD . : ; .


2012 1

8. , , , , , , DO . DO .

CBOD(L), (kn)NBOD, (kd), (ka), CBOD (ks), (P-R), SOD (S) DO . DO .

, .


2012 1

.


2012 1

, CBOD, NBOD, , , BOD(Lb) . . .

-


2012 1

9. . 1 2 .

1)

BOD .


2012 1

, , .

D.O. .

2)

(1) BOD

() , () BOD-D.O. .


2012 1

2 . ( ) 2 :

.

a=E b=-u, c=-kd

.

; g j (g,j , gj ).


2012 1

,

A B , . . 2 . (1) (W) ; (2) , .


2012 1

BOD D.O.


2012 1

BOD 0, BOD (L0) . .

BC 1 : at

BC 2 : at

g j , (104) 1 (101) B 0 .

(105) 2 A .

BOD .


2012 1

,

, (101) .

.

,

(108) (111) g j . BOD . (108) (111) () BOD .


2012 1

(2) DO

BOD , D.O. (108) (111) . .

,yp(x) . . .


2012 1

m , . . A B [(118)] (117) .

(120a)

(120b)

(120c)

D0 (=) . , D.O. . D.O. .


2012 1

(121) , D.O. - BOD x=0 D.O. .

D.O. .

10. , , .


2012 1

Ch.5

11. .

, , ( ) . , , , , , , , . , . 1 2 , . , , . , . () .


2012 1

. (), ( ), ( ) .

, . , , . , . , . , . , , . .

- (, , )

- (anoxic )

- ( )

-

, , . , ( ) .


2012 1

, . (, , ) .


2012 1

12. .

, 1939 (Oligotrophic), (Mesotrophic), (Eutrophic) . "Eutrophic" . . , . . ( , ) .

Clair Sawyer . 1947, Sawyer New England , 30/L (algal blooms) . Vollenweider ( g/m2/yr ) .


2012 1

100 , log-log . , . , . ( ) . , .


2012 1

10 /L , 20/L , 10 20/L .

13. Monod ( 3 ) .

1) , ,

. :

, [ ] () . , .


2012 1

.

A 1 B 1 , .

3 ( 3 .), 3 .


2012 1

Eyring , . A + BC AB + C . . AB + C . A + BC, ( ) . , () .


2012 1

( ) , . , , G . . .

. Svante Arrhenius .

, A , (J mol-1or cal mol-1), T K , R (8.314 J mol-1K-1or 1.987 cal J mol-1K-1).

A .


2012 1

1.0 , 1.0-1.10 . 20 . , , 30-60 kJ mol-1 7-14 kcal mol-1(1 cal = 4.184 J)2 . .


2012 1

.

S + E SE P + E

, S , E , SE - , P . .

, . . .


2012 1

2)

A, B, C , (a + b + c) .

Products

(Rxn rate) =

(Rxn order) = a + b + c +

(1) 0 (Zero-Order Reactions)

0 .


2012 1

(2) (First-Order Reactions)

. , 1 . , , , , . . 1 1 . :


2012 1

1 .

()

()

(2) 2(Second-Order Reactions)

1 2 2 2 2 .

2


2012 1

2

2 , .

.


2012 1

A 2 A (1/A ) K2 .

2 .

A B . A 1 B 1 .

(A) 1, A B A0,B0 . .

ln(A/B) k2(B0-A0) .

ln(A0R/AR0 . A0 ( ), R0 ( ).


2012 1

(3)

, 0, 1, 2 . (ln ln).

, , (0 < n < 1) . . , , -..


2012 1


2012 1

3) Monod - Michaelis-Menton

. Michaelis-Menton 2 .

E , S , ES - , P . . ES k1,k2 ,k3 . .

ES 1 .


2012 1

ES = 0, k3 k2 .

, ET , . ET . P ( ), k3[ET] , Michaelis-Menton .


2012 1

2 , 1 . 2 . ( ), 2 .

( ) 1 .

( ) , 1. .


2012 1

Kmmax .


2012 1

14. , Vollenweider .


2012 1

1)

. , , . (=) , . .

= - -

, ks 1 , , , .

, = , vs= , H = .


2012 1

2) Vollenweider

( ) .

, (Qin=Q). , (=V/Q).

, =

.

, ( ) . () .


2012 1

.

Vollenweider . . . . , , , . .


2012 1

3) Dillon Rigler Vollenweider

.

= - -

, L = (g/m2/yr), = (m2).

( )

.

.

.


2012 1

(1/ ).

log . .


2012 1

. , 10 L-1 20 L-1 .22

16. WASP MFEMWASP , . . .


2012 1

.

, , , , . < 3-2> .


2012 1

C4:

< 3-2> ,

(Growth, Death and Settling of Phytoplankton)

.

Sk4= (mg carbon/L/day)

Gp1= (1/day) = = 0.10.5

K1c= 20, = 2.0(1/day)

XT= =

1c= 1.068

XI=

e= 2.71838

Ke= (

) = 0.15 (1/m)


2012 1

Keshd= 0.0088 + 0.054

Pchl= (g/L)

Ia= (langleys/day) = 200750

Is= (ly/day)

= = 200500

c = (mg /mg ) = 2050

= (mg carbon/mole of light)

= = 720 (mg C/mole photon)

Kc= (m2/mg chlorophyll a) = 0.017

fu= (0.083) (mole photons/m2ly)

f= = 0.30.7

XN= =


2012 1

KmN= (g N/L) = 25.0

KmP= (g P/L) = 1.0

DP1= (1/day)

=

K1R= (1/day) = 0.125

1R= = 1.045

K1D=

(1/day) = 0.02

K1G= (L/mg Cday) = 0

Z(t)=

(mg C/L) = 0

Ks4= (1/day) =

Vs4= 0.1 m/day

D= = 0.130m

T= = 035

C4= (mg carbon/L)


2012 1

.

(P) . , , . < 3-3> .


2012 1

< 3-3> (Phosphorus Cycle)


2012 1

.

, . < 3-4>


2012 1

< 3-4> (Nitrogen Cycle)


2012 1

.

, , , CBOD, 5 . < 3-5> 5 . , .


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