Physical chemical properties
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Physical & Chemical Properties. Scientists use characteristic properties to identify matter. Physical Properties. Many physical properties can be observed or measured Mass, volume, density (mass/volume) Color, shape, odor, texture Melting, boiling point Strength, hardness, Magnetism

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Physical & Chemical Properties

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Physical chemical properties

Physical & ChemicalProperties

Scientists use characteristic properties to identify matter


Physical properties

Physical Properties

  • Many physical properties can be observed or measured

    • Mass, volume, density (mass/volume)

    • Color, shape, odor, texture

    • Melting, boiling point

    • Strength, hardness,

    • Magnetism

    • Ability to conduct electricity or heat

    • State of matter (solid, liquid, gas)


Specific temperatures of phase changes

Specific Temperatures of Phase Changes

SubstanceMelting Pt oCBoiling Pt oC

Water 0 100

Gold10632970

Carbon35504827

Mercury -39 357

Nitrogen -209-196

Oxygen -218-183

NaCl 8011413


Density

Density

  • All matter has mass, volume & density

  • Density determines whether an object will float or sink

  • Density is the amount of mass in a volume

  • Density = mass/volume

  • D=m/V


Density examples

Density Examples

Chemical

SubstanceFormulaDensity in g/cm3

  • Air mixture0.00129

  • HeliumHe0.00018

  • WaterH201.0

  • IceH20 0.92

  • Steelmixture7.8

  • IronFe7.86


Physical properties help to determine uses

Physical properties help to determine uses

  • Copper used in electrical power lines

  • Antifreeze (ethylene glycol) remains a liquid at temperature that would freeze or oil water in a car radiator

  • Aluminum foil is lightweight, yet durable, water resistant and flexible


Chemical properties

Chemical Properties

  • Describes how a substance reacts

    • Reactivity – the ability of a substance to combine chemically with another substance (oxygen, acid, water or other substances)

      • Iron reacts with oxygen to make rust Fe2O3

    • Flammability – the ability of a substance to react in the presence of oxygen and burn when exposed to a flame

      • Wood is flammable Gold is nonflammable


Comparisons

Comparisons

SubstancePhysicalChemical

Helium less dense airnonflammable

Woodgrainy textureflammable

Baking Sodawhite powderreacts w/vinegar

Rubbing alcoholclear liquidflammable

Ironmalleablereacts with oxygen


Physical change

Physical Change

  • A change of matter from one form to another without a change in chemical properties

    • Torn paper

    • Melting ice

    • Crushing a can

    • Sanding wood

    • Dissolving sugar


Physical chemical properties

  • Although a physical change takes place, a substance will maintain its chemical properties

  • Melting, freezing and evaporation - all changes of state - are physical changes because the identity of the substance does not change

    • ice, water, steam – all are water!

  • Physical changes are often easily reversed.


Physical chemical properties

  • Mixtures can be separated using physical and chemical properties.

  • Physical properties such as solubility, magnetism, density and size can help separate mixtures.


Chemical change

Chemical change

  • A change that occurs when a substance changes composition by forming one or more new substances.

  • Chemical changes are always accompanied by physical changes.


Evidence of chemical reaction

Evidence of Chemical Reaction

Chemical change or “reactivity” results in

  • Temperature change (always)

  • Flame or light or explosion

  • Change color

  • Bubbling (gasses) [NOT BOILING]

  • Oxidation (rusting or tarnishing)

  • Solid formation (precipitation) [NOT FREEZING]


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