The teaching, learning and assessing cycle

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The teaching-learning cycle. ObjectivesWhat is it?Where does it come from?Why is it useful?. The four stages. 2. Modelling / deconstructionDeveloping understandings of structure and language of discussion essay. Joint construction Jointly constructing written discussion about one alter

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The teaching, learning and assessing cycle

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1. The teaching, learning and assessing cycle Notes for the facilitator “A Teaching Learning and Assessing Program: Recycling” PD has been organised into two modules. Module one: The teaching-learning cycle as a framework for teaching genre and organising teaching, learning and assessing programs (1 to 2 hours) Module two: The teaching, learning and assessing program (1 to 2 hours) You will need to decide how to organise the modules and the amount of time on each. If participants are unfamiliar with the functional model of language a suggested process is: Module one: The teaching and learning cycle Module two: Module three of the ESL Scales Implementation (Understanding the model of language) Very brief input on the different purposes of the ESL Scope and the ESL Scales The teaching, learning and assessing program If you follow this process you will need to allow 2 hours for Module two Module one is divided into: Explanation of the teaching-learning cycle Activity and discussion to reinforce understandings about the teaching-learning cycle What participants need for this module: Handout 1.1: Jumbled Activities (one between 2 participants) Handout 1.2: Sequence of Activities (make OHT if desired) Handout 1.3: Blank Teaching-Learning Cycle Handout 2: Teaching-Learning Cycle - Recycling Input: The PD on the teaching, learning and assessing program is organised into two modules. Module one: the teaching-learning cycle, a framework which underpins a teaching, learning and assessing program on recycling Module two: a detailed examination of a teaching, learning and assessing program on recycling - this session builds on understandings developed in the first module Notes for the facilitator “A Teaching Learning and Assessing Program: Recycling” PD has been organised into two modules. Module one: The teaching-learning cycle as a framework for teaching genre and organising teaching, learning and assessing programs (1 to 2 hours) Module two: The teaching, learning and assessing program (1 to 2 hours) You will need to decide how to organise the modules and the amount of time on each. If participants are unfamiliar with the functional model of language a suggested process is: Module one: The teaching and learning cycle Module two: Module three of the ESL Scales Implementation (Understanding the model of language) Very brief input on the different purposes of the ESL Scope and the ESL Scales The teaching, learning and assessing program If you follow this process you will need to allow 2 hours for Module two Module one is divided into: Explanation of the teaching-learning cycle Activity and discussion to reinforce understandings about the teaching-learning cycle What participants need for this module: Handout 1.1: Jumbled Activities (one between 2 participants) Handout 1.2: Sequence of Activities (make OHT if desired) Handout 1.3: Blank Teaching-Learning Cycle Handout 2: Teaching-Learning Cycle - Recycling Input: The PD on the teaching, learning and assessing program is organised into two modules. Module one: the teaching-learning cycle, a framework which underpins a teaching, learning and assessing program on recycling Module two: a detailed examination of a teaching, learning and assessing program on recycling - this session builds on understandings developed in the first module

2. The teaching-learning cycle Objectives What is it? Where does it come from? Why is it useful? Input: By the end of this module, participants will have gained an understanding of the organisation and purpose of the teaching-learning cycle for teaching a genre research studies informing the development of the teaching-learning cycle the use of the cycle to plan and implement a teaching, learning and assessing program.Input: By the end of this module, participants will have gained an understanding of the organisation and purpose of the teaching-learning cycle for teaching a genre research studies informing the development of the teaching-learning cycle the use of the cycle to plan and implement a teaching, learning and assessing program.

3. The four stages Input: The four stages are: Extending everyday understandings of and familiarity with energy issues Developing understandings of the structure and language of a discussion essay Jointly constructing a written discussion about one alternative source of energy Writing an independent discussion on another alternative source of energy. In the teaching-learning cycle, these four stages are technically called Building the field Modelling/ Deconstruction Joint construction Independent construction Input: The four stages are: Extending everyday understandings of and familiarity with energy issues Developing understandings of the structure and language of a discussion essay Jointly constructing a written discussion about one alternative source of energy Writing an independent discussion on another alternative source of energy. In the teaching-learning cycle, these four stages are technically called Building the field Modelling/ Deconstruction Joint construction Independent construction

4. What is it? Input: This slide shows a diagrammatic representation of the teaching-learning cycle There are many adaptations of this model. The model used in this PD has 4 stages. Building the field – In this stage the teacher builds on what the students already know about the topic and develops their knowledge and understandings so that they become very familiar with the topic. The activities for building the field can vary according to the topic but usually move from the more experiential/everyday field knowledge to more abstract/technical field knowledge. Building the field can occur in all 4 stages of the cycle particularly if learners are exposed to new content as they move through the stages. Modelling/ Deconstruction – In this stage the teacher guides the students in exploring how the text makes meaning through an examination of the text’s social purpose, its structure and its language features (genre, field, tenor and mode). Initially particular language features are focused on and further understandings are built up through further deconstructions of texts. At this stage also students can learn the metalanguage which enables them to talk about language and texts. Joint construction – In this stage, the teacher guides the students to jointly construct a text. The teacher guides the discussion by asking questions, making suggestions and re-wording where necessary and in the process, encourages students to take an increasing role in the joint construction using what they’ve learnt about the structure and the language features of the genre. Independent construction – Once students have successfully participated in a joint construction they are ready to move into the Independent construction stage. In this stage, students need to build up knowledge of their topic before they can write their independent construction. This may involve independent, group or class research or if students are in the beginning levels of learning English, the field knowledge needed may have been developed while proceeding through the previous stages. During this stage, students can develop the writing skills of revising and editing and critical literacy skills.Input: This slide shows a diagrammatic representation of the teaching-learning cycle There are many adaptations of this model. The model used in this PD has 4 stages. Building the field – In this stage the teacher builds on what the students already know about the topic and develops their knowledge and understandings so that they become very familiar with the topic. The activities for building the field can vary according to the topic but usually move from the more experiential/everyday field knowledge to more abstract/technical field knowledge. Building the field can occur in all 4 stages of the cycle particularly if learners are exposed to new content as they move through the stages. Modelling/ Deconstruction – In this stage the teacher guides the students in exploring how the text makes meaning through an examination of the text’s social purpose, its structure and its language features (genre, field, tenor and mode). Initially particular language features are focused on and further understandings are built up through further deconstructions of texts. At this stage also students can learn the metalanguage which enables them to talk about language and texts. Joint construction – In this stage, the teacher guides the students to jointly construct a text. The teacher guides the discussion by asking questions, making suggestions and re-wording where necessary and in the process, encourages students to take an increasing role in the joint construction using what they’ve learnt about the structure and the language features of the genre. Independent construction – Once students have successfully participated in a joint construction they are ready to move into the Independent construction stage. In this stage, students need to build up knowledge of their topic before they can write their independent construction. This may involve independent, group or class research or if students are in the beginning levels of learning English, the field knowledge needed may have been developed while proceeding through the previous stages. During this stage, students can develop the writing skills of revising and editing and critical literacy skills.

5. Where does it come from? Input: The pedagogy underpinning the teaching-learning cycle is broadly referred to as ‘scaffolding’ The notion of ‘scaffolding’ is largely derived from the work of Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who lived in the early part the twentieth century. In contrast to Piaget’s view of development which maintains that development (maturation) drives learning, Vygotsky describes the relationship between language and learning as one in which learning takes place before development. Input: The pedagogy underpinning the teaching-learning cycle is broadly referred to as ‘scaffolding’ The notion of ‘scaffolding’ is largely derived from the work of Vygotsky Lev Vygotsky was a Russian psychologist who lived in the early part the twentieth century. In contrast to Piaget’s view of development which maintains that development (maturation) drives learning, Vygotsky describes the relationship between language and learning as one in which learning takes place before development.

6. Vygotsky Input: The essence of Vgotsky’s learning theory Cognitive development depends on people in the child’s world. The child’s culture shapes cognitive development. Social interaction is the central source of structure in the mind of the individual. It is important to find out what the child can achieve with an adult as well as unaided. The difference is what constitutes the zone of proximal development, and it is in this zone that effective instruction takes place. Development depends on and reconstitutes the achievements of previous stages so that development proceeds not as unilinear sequence but in a spiral passing through the same point at each new revolution while advancing to a higher level. (John Walsh 2003)Input: The essence of Vgotsky’s learning theory Cognitive development depends on people in the child’s world. The child’s culture shapes cognitive development. Social interaction is the central source of structure in the mind of the individual. It is important to find out what the child can achieve with an adult as well as unaided. The difference is what constitutes the zone of proximal development, and it is in this zone that effective instruction takes place. Development depends on and reconstitutes the achievements of previous stages so that development proceeds not as unilinear sequence but in a spiral passing through the same point at each new revolution while advancing to a higher level. (John Walsh 2003)

7. Scaffolding Input: This leads to the work of Bruner. He was the first to use the term ‘Scaffolding’ in relation to the role of the parent in language development of young children. He saw it as the process in which parents and children jointly construct texts which are based on shared experience. Parents actively scaffold children’s learning attempts by providing models of the appropriate language and by structuring and regulating the input. Bruner wrote in relation to Vgotsky’s ideas that learning is a communal activity, where the emphasis is on negotiating and sharing. Input: This leads to the work of Bruner. He was the first to use the term ‘Scaffolding’ in relation to the role of the parent in language development of young children. He saw it as the process in which parents and children jointly construct texts which are based on shared experience. Parents actively scaffold children’s learning attempts by providing models of the appropriate language and by structuring and regulating the input. Bruner wrote in relation to Vgotsky’s ideas that learning is a communal activity, where the emphasis is on negotiating and sharing.

8. Scaffolding in the classroom Challenge and extend learners Input: The key features of scaffolding in the classroom are: Teachers challenge and extend learners through the sequence of activities they choose and through the quality of their support and guidance In these activities the learner is pushed beyond the current abilities and levels of understanding. It is here that new learning takes place and students are able to ‘internalise” new understandings. It is when the learning context provides both high challenge and high support that most learning takes place. Vygotsky made the point that good learning is that which is ahead of actual development Teacher support is gradually withdrawn as learners become increasingly able to complete a task alone Support is provided at the point of need, requiring of teachers that they be aware of the learner’s current understanding (John Walsh 2003)Input: The key features of scaffolding in the classroom are: Teachers challenge and extend learners through the sequence of activities they choose and through the quality of their support and guidance In these activities the learner is pushed beyond the current abilities and levels of understanding. It is here that new learning takes place and students are able to ‘internalise” new understandings. It is when the learning context provides both high challenge and high support that most learning takes place. Vygotsky made the point that good learning is that which is ahead of actual development Teacher support is gradually withdrawn as learners become increasingly able to complete a task alone Support is provided at the point of need, requiring of teachers that they be aware of the learner’s current understanding (John Walsh 2003)

9. Why is it useful? Rationale and framework for sequence of teaching and learning activities Focus on language learning and learning about language Pedagogy which ‘scaffolds’ learners to become independent learners Flexible framework Input: The teaching-learning cycle is useful because: it provides a rationale and a framework for decisions about the type and sequence of teaching and learning activities appropriate in a language and literacy classroom it focuses on learning language and also about language learning, that is, learning how and why written texts are shaped and organised as they are. It involves considerable talk about texts, drawing on shared understanding of the schematic structure and grammatical patterns of the genre under focus. The talk about text which accompanies analysis of models of the genre and joint construction of the genre ensures that by the time learners write independently, they have a clear understanding of the language choices they make and why they make them. the underlying pedagogy (scaffolding) moves students gradually from being highly supported in the learning process to becoming independent learners it is flexible.The model is represented as a circle and this enables us to see its flexibility. Stages can be revisited or left out depending on the needs of the learners. For example once students have been explicitly taught a genre, the teacher may not need to spend as much time in the Modelling/ Deconstruction stage or may be able to move from Building the field to Independent construction. Again, when students encounter a new genre, some may need to move back to the modelling stage if formative assessment in the joint construction stage shows that more modelling of the language features is required. Thus the teaching – learning cycle can be used as a guiding framework in organising and sequencing activities and can be used flexibly to ensure that tasks are appropriate and relevant for students. Input: The teaching-learning cycle is useful because: it provides a rationale and a framework for decisions about the type and sequence of teaching and learning activities appropriate in a language and literacy classroom it focuses on learning language and also about language learning, that is, learning how and why written texts are shaped and organised as they are. It involves considerable talk about texts, drawing on shared understanding of the schematic structure and grammatical patterns of the genre under focus. The talk about text which accompanies analysis of models of the genre and joint construction of the genre ensures that by the time learners write independently, they have a clear understanding of the language choices they make and why they make them. the underlying pedagogy (scaffolding) moves students gradually from being highly supported in the learning process to becoming independent learners it is flexible.The model is represented as a circle and this enables us to see its flexibility. Stages can be revisited or left out depending on the needs of the learners. For example once students have been explicitly taught a genre, the teacher may not need to spend as much time in the Modelling/ Deconstruction stage or may be able to move from Building the field to Independent construction. Again, when students encounter a new genre, some may need to move back to the modelling stage if formative assessment in the joint construction stage shows that more modelling of the language features is required. Thus the teaching – learning cycle can be used as a guiding framework in organising and sequencing activities and can be used flexibly to ensure that tasks are appropriate and relevant for students.

10. A teaching-learning cycle eg Recycling Give participants Handout 2: Teaching-Learning Cycle: Recycling Using Handout 2 give the following input: This handout shows an overview of a teaching, learning and assessing program about ‘Recycling’ plotted onto the teaching-learning cycle. This program will be explored in its expanded form in the next module. This handout demonstrates the usefulness of the teaching-learning cycle as outlined in the previous slide. A particular sequence of activities is outlined. Language learning and learning about language are fore-grounded in all four stages. The pedagogy outlined in the four stages moves learners from a highly supportive context to independent learning. The model indicates flexibility eg moving back to a previous stage to reinforce language understandings or forward if students already have an understanding of the genre. Give participants Handout 2: Teaching-Learning Cycle: Recycling Using Handout 2 give the following input: This handout shows an overview of a teaching, learning and assessing program about ‘Recycling’ plotted onto the teaching-learning cycle. This program will be explored in its expanded form in the next module. This handout demonstrates the usefulness of the teaching-learning cycle as outlined in the previous slide. A particular sequence of activities is outlined. Language learning and learning about language are fore-grounded in all four stages. The pedagogy outlined in the four stages moves learners from a highly supportive context to independent learning. The model indicates flexibility eg moving back to a previous stage to reinforce language understandings or forward if students already have an understanding of the genre.

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