Chapter ten liquidity and reserve management strategies and policies
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CHAPTER TEN Liquidity And Reserve Management: Strategies And Policies

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Chapter ten liquidity and reserve management strategies and policies

CHAPTER TENLiquidity And Reserve Management: Strategies And Policies

The purpose of this chapter is to explore the reason’s why financial institutions often face heavy demands for immediately spendable funds (liquidity) and learn about the methods they can use to prepare for meeting their cash needs.


Liquidity

Liquidity

The Availability of Cash in the Amount and at the Time Needed at a Reasonable Cost


Supplies of liquid funds

Supplies of Liquid Funds

  • Incoming Customer Deposits

  • Revenues from the Sale of Nondeposit Services

  • Customer Loan Repayments

  • Sales of Bank Assets

  • Borrowings from the Money Market


Demands for liquidity

Demands for Liquidity

  • Customer Deposit Withdrawals

  • Credit Requests from Quality Loan Customers

  • Repayment of Nondeposit Borrowings

  • Operating Expenses and Taxes

  • Payment of Stockholder Dividends


A financial firm s net liquidity position

A Financial Firm’s Net Liquidity Position

L = Supplies of Liquid Funds

- Demands for Liquidity


Essence of liquidity management

Essence of Liquidity Management

  • Rarely are the Demands for Liquidity Equal to the Supply of Liquidity at Any Particular Moment. The Financial Firm Must Continually Deal with Either a Liquidity Deficit or Surplus

  • There is a Trade-Off Between Bank Liquidity and Profitability. The More Resources are Tied Up in Readiness to Meet Demands for Liquidity, the Lower is the Financial Firm’s Expected Profitability.


Why banks and their competitors face significant liquidity problems

Why Banks and Their Competitors Face Significant Liquidity Problems

  • Imbalances Between Maturity Dates of Their Assets and Liabilities

  • High Proportion of Liabilities Subject to Immediate Repayment

  • Sensitivity to Changes in Interest Rates

  • Central Role in the Payment Process


Strategies for liquidity managers

Strategies for Liquidity Managers

  • Asset Liquidity Management or Asset Conversion Strategy

  • Borrowed Liquidity or Liability Management Strategy

  • Balanced Liquidity Strategy


Asset liquidity management

Asset Liquidity Management

This Strategy Calls for Storing Liquidity in the Form of Liquid Assets and Selling Them When Liquidity is Needed


Liquid asset

Liquid Asset

  • Must Have a Ready Market So it Can Be Converted to Cash Quickly

  • Must Have a Reasonably Stable Price

  • Must Be Reversible So an Investor Can Recover Original Investment with Little Risk


Options for storing liquidity

Treasury Bills

Fed Funds Sold to Other Banks

Purchasing Securities for Resale (Repos)

Deposits with Correspondent Banks

Municipal Bonds and Notes

Federal Agency Securities

Bankers’ Acceptances

Commercial Paper

Eurocurrency Loans

Options for Storing Liquidity


Costs of asset liquidity management

Costs of Asset Liquidity Management

  • Loss of Future Earnings on Assets That Must Be Sold

  • Transaction Costs on Assets That Must Be Sold

  • Potential Capital Losses If Interest Rates are Rising

  • May Weaken Appearance of Balance Sheet

  • Liquid Assets Generally Have Low Returns


Borrowed liquidity management

Borrowed Liquidity Management

This Strategy Calls for the Bank to Purchase or Borrow from the Money Market To Cover All of Its Liquidity Needs


Sources of borrowed funds

Sources of Borrowed Funds

  • Federal Funds Purchased

  • Selling Securities for Repurchase (Repos)

  • Issuing Large CDs (Greater than $100,000)

  • Issuing Eurocurrency Deposits

  • Borrowing Reserves from the Discount Window of the Federal Reserve


Balanced liquidity management strategy

Balanced Liquidity Management Strategy

The Combined Use of Liquid Asset Holdings (Asset Management) and Borrowed Liquidity (Liability Management) to Meet Liquidity Needs


Guidelines for liquidity managers

Guidelines for Liquidity Managers

  • They Should Keep Track of All Fund-Using and Fund-Raising Departments

  • They Should Know in Advance Withdrawals by the Biggest Credit or Deposit Customers

  • Their Priorities and Objectives for Liquidity Management Should be Clear

  • Liquidity Needs Must be Evaluated on a Continuing Basis


Methods for estimating liquidity needs

Methods for Estimating Liquidity Needs

  • Sources and Uses of Funds Approach

  • Structure of Funds Approach

  • Liquidity Indicator Approach

  • Signals from the Marketplace


Sources and uses of funds

Sources and Uses of Funds

  • Loans and Deposits Must Be Forecast for a Given Liquidity Planning Period

  • The Estimated Change in Loans and Deposits Must Be Calculated for the Same Planning Period

  • The Liquidity Manager Must Estimate the Bank’s Net Liquid Funds By Comparing the Estimated Change in Loans to the Estimated Change in Deposits


Structure of funds

Structure of Funds

  • A Bank’s Deposits and Other Sources of Funds Divided Into Categories. For Example:

    • ‘Hot Money’ Liabilities

    • Vulnerable Funds

    • Stable Funds

  • Liquidity Manager Set Aside Liquid Funds According to Some Operating Rule


Customer relationship doctrine

Customer Relationship Doctrine

Management Should Strive to Meet All Good Loans that Walk in the Door in Order to Build Lasting Customer Relationships


Liquidity indicator approach

Liquidity Indicator Approach

  • Cash Position Indicator

  • Liquid Security Indicator

  • Net Federal Funds Position

  • Capacity Ratio

  • Pledging Securities Ratio

  • Hot Money Ratio

  • Short-Term Investments to Sensitive Liabilities Ratio

  • Deposit Brokerage Index

  • Core Deposit Ratio

  • Deposit Composition Ratio


Market signals of liquidity management

Market Signals of Liquidity Management

  • Public Confidence

  • Stock Price Behavior

  • Risk Premiums on CDs

  • Loss Sales of Assets

  • Meeting Commitments to Creditors

  • Borrowings from the Central Bank


Legal reserves

Legal Reserves

Assets That a Central Bank Requires Depository Institutions to Hold as a Reserve Behind Their Deposits or Other Liabilities


U s legal reserve requirements

U.S. Legal Reserve Requirements

  • 3 Percent of End-of-the-Day Daily Average for a Two Week Period For Transaction Accounts Up To $42.1 Million

  • 10 Percent of End-of-the-Day Daily Average for a Two Week Period For Transaction Accounts For Amounts Over $42.1 Million

  • Transaction Accounts Include Checking Accounts, NOW Accounts and Other Deposits Used to Make Payments

  • The $42.1 Million Amount is Adjusted Annually


Sweep account

Sweep Account

A Contractual Account Between Bank and Customer that Permits the Bank to Move Funds Out of a Customer’s Checking Account Overnight in Order to Generate Higher Returns for the Customer and Lower Reserve Requirements for the Bank


Reserve computation period

Reserve Computation Period

The Period of Time Over Which a bank Calculates its Legal Reserve Requirement


Reserve maintenance period

Reserve Maintenance Period

The Period of Time Over Which a Bank Must Hold the Required Amount of Legal Reserves that the Law Demands


Factors to consider when choosing among different sources of reserves

Factors to Consider When Choosing Among Different Sources of Reserves

  • Immediacy of Bank’s Needs

  • Duration of Bank’s Needs

  • Bank’s Access to Market for Liquid Funds

  • Relative Costs and Risks of Alternatives

  • Interest Rate Outlook and Shape of the Yield Curve

  • Monetary Policy Outlook and Government Borrowing

  • Hedging Capability

  • Regulations Applicable for Liquidity Sources


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