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材料性能基础 王秀丽 材料科学与工程学系 [email protected] PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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材料性能基础 王秀丽 材料科学与工程学系 [email protected] 材料科学与人类文明--材料性能基础. 材料性能基础. 物理性能 :密度、熔点、热、电、光、磁 化学性能 :抗氧化、耐蚀性、催化性、生物相容性 力学性能 :弹性、强度、韧性、硬度、疲劳、高温力学性能、耐磨性 改变材料力学性能的主要方法:金属材料强化方法(塑性变形、细化晶粒、合金化、热处理),无机非金属材料增强增韧、高分子材料增强与改性. 材料科学与人类文明--材料性能基础. 材料性能概述. 材料的性能:表征材料在给定外界条件下的行为. 成分. 化学键. 性能. 组织结构.

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材料性能基础 王秀丽 材料科学与工程学系 [email protected]

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Wangxl@zju edu cn

[email protected]

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Wangxl zju

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Wangxl zju

Fe-0.45wt%C

F+P

M

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Wangxl zju

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Chap3-1

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1

3R

0

0

D

T/K

--

1 mol1 KJ/(molK)

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2

T1

Q

T2

T1-T2=1 K

W/(m K)

qW/m2

dT/dxK/m

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  • 20-400 W/m-K

  • 2-50 W/m-K

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3

1 Klv v =3l

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4

Tf>T0<0Tf < T0 >0

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(Thermal Shock Resistance, TSR)

TSR

l=910-6 K-1

CaONa2OB2O3l=310-6 K-1

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1

+

+

+

+

-

-

-

-

e-

Ex

px=mvx

mvx

=

eEx=mvx/

vx=eEx/m=Ex

, =e/m

nJx=nevx=neEx,

=Jx/Ex=ne=ne2 /m

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=Jx/Ex=ne=ne2 /m

n

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  • r

  • xb

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99.97~99.98%

61%1/3

160KV

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ln

a

b

1/T

1

2

a

b

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105-106Sm-1PdORuO2Bi2Ru2O7Bi2Ir2O7

ZnO

ZnO10

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N

ns

Na: 1s22s22p23s1

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Na: 1s22s22p23s1

Mg: 1s22s22p63s2

Al: 1s22s22p63s23p1

Fe: 1s22s22p63s23p63d64s2

Cu: 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s1

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SiGe1ev

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nSiGePSbBiAs

pSiGeAl

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  • SiGe

  • np

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1957--BCS1972

BCS(<c)()

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HcT

Tc

HcT< Tc

Jc

T< TcHcJc

1HcJc

2 T< TcHc

Tc

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P=Zqd, Zqd

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U

d

= / 0

0 0 =8.8510-12 F/m

P

P=( -1) 0E

E

EV/m

12

Q=CUC=A/d

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  • ,

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:(>800 nm)(400-800 nm)(<400 nm)

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10-8 s

10-8 s

X

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--

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M::

M.M

,

-10-5BiCuAgAu

=C/TC 10-5 AlPt

103FeCoNiT> Tc=C/T-Tc Tc

: B ()

: H (/)

: M (/)

B

B = 0 1+ H

B = H

= B/H

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  • : ,

    • (MH)~10-6

    • ..

    • Cu, Ag, Au, Hg, Zn, Bi()

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: ,

  • 10-3~10-6

  • ()3d-Ti,V; 4d-Nb, Zr, MoPd5d-(Hf, Ta, W, Pt

  • LiNa, KMg Al

  • -

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Wangxl zju

  • Fe,Co,Ni10 ~ 10 6

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Wangxl zju

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Wangxl zju

Thanks for your attention!

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