Verbals
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Verbals. Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives . Participles . A present participle is formed by adding –ing to the verb. A past participle is formed by adding –ed to the verb. Sometimes a participle acts as the main verb in a verb phrase.

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Verbals

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Verbals

Verbals

Participles, Gerunds, and Infinitives


Participles

Participles

  • A present participle is formed by adding –ing to the verb. A past participle is formed by adding –ed to the verb.

  • Sometimes a participle acts as the main verb in a verb phrase.

  • As a verb, the present participle is used with forms of the linking verb to be, and the past participle is used with forms of the helping verb to have.

  • A participle can also act as an adjective to describe, or modify, a noun, or pronoun.


Participle examples

Participle Examples

  • The robin was singing in the tree.

    (present participle as a main verb.)

  • Our cat stared at the singing robin.

    (present participle as an adjective.)

  • Tammy has tossed the water balloon.

    (past participle as a main verb.)

  • The tossed water balloon hit the sidewalk.

    (past participle as an adjective.


Participial phrase

Participial Phrase

  • A participle phrase includes a participle and all the other words that complete its meaning.

  • It is used as an adjective and can appear before or after the word it modifies.

  • Place the phrase as close as possible to the modified word to avoid confusion.

  • A participial phrase placed at the beginning of the sentence is set off with a comma.

  • Other participial phrases may or may not need commas, depending on whether they are essential to the sentence.


Participial phrases examples

Participial Phrases Examples

  • The girl throwing the water balloon is Tammy.

  • Tammy, throwing the water balloon, aimed at the target.

  • Running quickly after Tammy, I threw the balloon back.

  • Tammy, scared of getting wet, hid behind the bush.


Gerunds

Gerunds

  • You can also have a verb form ending in –ing that may serve as a noun. This is called a gerund.

  • It can be the subject of the sentence, the direct object, the predicate nominative, or the object of the preposition.


Gerund examples

Gerund Examples

  • Flying is a skill birds must learn.

    (gerund acts as a subject.)

  • Young birds practice flying.

    (gerund acts as a direct object).

  • They can escape from dangers by flying.

    (gerund acts as an object of the preposition)

  • My favorite sport is swimming. (gerund acts as a predicate nominative).


Gerund phrase

Gerund Phrase

  • A gerund phrase is a group of words that includes a gerund and other words that completes its meaning.

  • Examples

    Flying in a storm takes practice. (subject).

    Birds learn flying in high winds at a young age.

    (direct object).

    Many birds owe their survival skills to flying away from enemies. (object of the preposition)


Infinitives

Infinitives

  • An infinitive is another verb form that may function as a noun (subject or direct object). It may also function as a adjective or an adverb.

  • An infinitive is formed from the word to plus a verb.

  • The word is not a preposition when it is used immediately before a verb.

    Jenny is always looking for a chance to read. (infinitive)

    She goes to the library once a week. (not an infinitive; the word to is used a preposition.


Infinitives continued

Infinitives Continued…

  • An infinitive used as a noun can be the subject of a sentence or the direct object of the verb.

  • To read is enjoyable. (subject).

  • Jenny tries to read every day. (direct object).

  • An infinitive phrase is a group of words that includes the infinitive and other words that completes its meaning.

  • Example: Jenny has decided to read all of Sue Ellen Bridger’s books this summer.


Verbal review

Verbal Review

  • Look for these words:

  • To + verb

  • words that end in –ed

  • Words that end in -ing


Infinitives1

Infinitives

  • To + Verb

  • Adjective

  • Adverb

  • Noun(Subject or Direct Object)

    If the infinitive comes after

    LV—adverb

    AV—direct object (noun)

    Noun—adjective

    Blank or nothing—subject


Gerunds1

Gerunds

  • Words that end in –ing

  • Always function as a noun

    If the gerund comes…

    After AV—Direct Object

    After LV—Predicate Nominative

    After Preposition—Object of the Preposition

    Before the main verb—Subject


Participles1

Participles

  • Words that end in –ing or –ed

  • Functions as a verb or an adjective

  • HV or LV—verb

  • No HV or LV—adjective

  • ***Remember that past tense verbs end in –ed, so not all words that end in –ed are participles. When you see a word that ends in –ed, check to see if that word has a HV or LV in front of it. If it does have a HV or LV in front of it, then it IS A PARTICIPLE. If not, the word is NOT A PARTICIPLE.


Chart

Chart


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