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Scientific Method. how to think and work like a scientist. START. How to think and work like a scientist. ?. !. A good question?. An educated guess…. A valid hypothesis!. Knowledge. Testability. Wrap-Up. Observation. Falsifiability. Imagination. Welcome!

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Scientific method

Scientific Method

how to think and work like a scientist

START


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Welcome!

My name is Zweistein, I will be assisting you in learning how to think and work like a real scientist!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

First, let me show you how to use this workshop!

You can navigate through the exercise by using the links on top.

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

You may return to any chapter at any given time for reviewing purpose.

Additionally, you can go back and forward using the arrows on top!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Shall we begin?

Let’s start!


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

???

Where?

Why?

What?

How?

At the beginning of each experiment, there always has to be a question.

When?

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Observation

Knowledge

Imagination

A good scientific question emerges from three components.

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Observation

Knowledge

Libraries

What do we know already?

Imagination

What do we NOT know yet?

Journals

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Observation

Knowledge

Did you discover something?

Exploration

Is there a different way to analyze already existing data?

Imagination

Existing Data

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Observation

Be creative!

Knowledge

Problem Solving

Ideas

Think out of the box!

Imagination

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

OK, now that you know how to come up with an interesting scientific question, it is time for practice.

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Think about an interesting question. Something you would like to know about…

Write your question down.

I’m done …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Is there a deity that created the universe?

Will humans ever live forever?

What is the best recipe for cheese cake?

How can we make cars more fuel efficient?

Can we stop a volcano from erupting by throwing in a virgin?

Here are some examples of questions people may ask.

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Now that you have a question, the next step is to formulate a hypothesis , i.e. what do you expect or assume?

Let’s do this for our examples!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Will humans ever live forever?

No human will ever live forever.

Is there a deity that created the universe?

An almighty being has created the universe.

My grandma’s recipe makes the best cheese cake.

What is the best recipe for cheese cake?

How can we make cars more fuel efficient?

Reducing the weight of a car will always increase its fuel efficiency.

Volcanoes will stop erupting when a virgin is thrown in.

Can we stop a volcano from erupting by throwing in a virgin?

Click on the question to show a possible hypothesis for that questions. Click the hypothesis to see the question again.

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Time for practice again!

Look at your question and formulate a hypothesis. What do you expect the answer to be? Or do you think you know what is NOT the answer?

Write your hypothesis down!

Let me take another look

at those examples …

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

You now have a hypothesis, an educated guess of the answer to your question.

But is it a good one?

Let’s figure it out!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

1. Testability

Two Aspects of a

valid hypothesis

2. Falsifiability

Valid Hypothesis!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Two Aspects of A

Valid Hypothesis

1. Testability

2. Falsifiability

Valid Hypothesis!

Let’s take a look at these, one by one!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Two Aspects of A

Valid Hypothesis

1. Testability

Can data be collected to answer your question?

2. Falsifiability

Can you design an experiment to answer your question?

Valid Hypothesis!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Two Aspects of A

Valid Hypothesis

1. Testability

Can data be collected to answer your question?

Can you design an experiment to answer your question?

Let’s check our examples!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

You can test this by observing human populations. As long as individuals die, your hypothesis is supported.

There is no way of telling whether there is an almighty being or not because we don’t ever know whether our observations are manipulated by such a being, if it existed.

No human will ever live forever.

An almighty being has created the universe.

This is a tricky one! You can ask hundreds of people for their opinion. However, “best” is a subjective opinion, and therefore not scientifically measurable!

My grandma’s recipe makes the best cheese cake.

This one is easy! You can certainly take a car, increase or decrease its weight and measure the gas mileage it gets.

Reducing the weight of a car will always increase its fuel efficiency.

Even though ethically problematic, to say the least, you could test this! Of course, no one would allow you to do it but hypothetically, it is possible.

Volcanoes will stop erupting when a virgin is thrown in.

Are these hypotheses testable?

Click the respective box to check your answer.

A green tick means testable, a red cross means not testable. Click for explanations!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

1. Testability

Two Aspects of a

valid hypothesis

2. Falsifiability

Can the hypothesis be disproven?

Can the answer be “no”?

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

This hypothesis cannot be disproven, it is therefore not falsifiable. We do not know if in the future a human being will be born that outlives us all.

No human will ever live forever.

An almighty being has created the universe.

My grandma’s recipe makes the best cheese cake.

This is falsifiable. Results could show that higher weight results in better gas mileage, or that there is no change at all. Higher weight from extra parts for better aerodynamics could cause this, for example.

Reducing the weight of a car will always increase its fuel efficiency.

There is a (high) possibility that sacrificing a virgin will not stop a volcano from erupting. That possibility is also observable. Therefore, this hypothesis is falsifiable.

Volcanoes will stop erupting when a virgin is thrown in.

Are these hypotheses falsifiable?

Click the respective box to check your answer.

A green tick means testable, a red cross means not testable. Click for explanations!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

1. Testability

Two Aspects of a

valid hypothesis

2. Falsifiability

Valid Hypothesis!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

1. Testability

No human will ever live forever.

An almighty being has created the universe.

2. Falsifiability

My grandma’s recipe makes the best cheese cake.

ValidHypothesis!

Reducing the weight of a car will always increase its fuel efficiency.

Volcanoes will stop erupting when a virgin is thrown in.

These two hypotheses are scientifically testable and falsifiable.

Does your hypothesis pass the test?

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Let’s wrap it up!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

1. Testability

Observation

Knowledge

ResearchQuestion

Hypothesis

2. Falsifiability

Imagination

Valid Hypothesis!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

You know now how to ask a good question and how to formulate a valid hypothesis!

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

No human will ever live forever.

If your hypothesis is testable and falsifiable, bring it to the first lab!

If not, rephrase it until you think it works!

All humans live forever.

Observe one death

false

Continue …


How to think and work like a scientist

?

!

A good question?

An educated guess…

A valid hypothesis!

Knowledge

Testability

Wrap-Up

Observation

Falsifiability

Imagination

Don’t worry if you’re not sure, your lab group and your instructor will discuss your hypothesis.

I will see you in our next exercise: how to design a good experiment!

Finish this workshop …


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