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Anterior Leg Muscles. Vastus Lateralis. Rectus Femoris. Ext. Hallucis Longus. Tibialis Anterior. Vastus Intermedius. Ext. Digitor . Longus. Vastus Medialis. Quadriceps Femoris Group. O Linea Aspera ; Greater Trochanter I Patella; Tibial tuberosity via patellar ligament

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anterior leg muscles
Anterior Leg Muscles

VastusLateralis

Rectus Femoris

Ext. HallucisLongus

Tibialis Anterior

VastusIntermedius

Ext. Digitor. Longus

VastusMedialis

Quadriceps Femoris Group

OLinea Aspera; Greater Trochanter

IPatella; Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament

AExtension of knee

NLateral surface of anterior thigh; lateral to rectus femoris in active knee extension

OAnterior & Lateral femur

IPatella; Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament

AExtension of knee

NDeepest quad; deep to rectus femoris; may try to palpate underneath by pushing rectus femoris medially in active knee extension

OLateral condyle of tibia; anterior shaft of fibula

IMiddle and distal phalanges of 4 lateral toes

AExtension of 4 lateral toes; assists dorsiflexion of ankle

NComparable to Extensor Digitorum in the hand

OLateral Condyle & Lateral shaft of tibia

IBase of 1st Metatarsal (plantar surface); First (medial) cuneiform (plantar surface)

ADorsiflexion of Ankle; Inversion of Foot

NArea of “shin splints”; Paralysis of this muscle causes “foot drop”

OAnterior Shaft of fibula

IBase of distal phalanx of great toe (Hallucis)

AExtension of great toe; assists dorsiflexion of ankle

NComparable to Extensor PollicisLongus in the hand

O Anterior Inferior Iliac Spine [A.I.I.S.]; Upper Margin of Acetabulum

I Patella; Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament; Sesamoid Bone

A Extension of knee; Assists flexion of femur at hip

N Only quad muscle crossing both hip and knee joints; combined action in walking

OLinea Aspera (posterior femur)

IPatella; Tibialtuberosity via patellar ligament

AExtension of knee

NAnterior, medial surface of lower third of thigh, medial to rectus femoris in active knee extension; sartorius overlaps vastusmedialis

Muscles of the Shin

Key

O = Origin

I = Insertion

A = Action

N = Notes

Healing Hands Institute

posterior leg muscles
Posterior Leg Muscles

Hamstrings Notes

All three of the Hamstrings cross both the hip and knee joints from lateral to medial (BTM):

Biceps Femoris

SemiTendinosus

SemiMembranosus

An inability to touch your toes while keeping your knees extended is largely due to shortened hamstrings.

Biceps Femoris

Semitendinosus

Tibialis Posterior

Gastrocnemius

Soleus

Semimembranosus

OPosterior tibia & posterior fibula

INavicular; adjacent tarsals & metatarsals on plantar surface of foot

AInversion of foot; assists plantarflexion of ankle

NBelly of muscle deep to Triceps Surae, cannot be palpated

OSoleal line of tibia; posterior head & upper shaft of fibula

ICalcaneusvia Achilles Tendon

APlantarflexion of ankle (stronger than gastroc.)

N“Soleus” (Latin = sole, a flat fish); deep to gastrocnemius; together, gastroc and soleus are often referred to as the “Triceps Surae”

OIschialTuberosity

IAnterior proximal tibial shaft (inserts medially at the knee, at “PesAnserinus”)

AFlexion of Knee;(to a lesser degree, Extension of Hip); Medial rotation of flexed knee

NCentral hamstring; tendon is deep, and difficult to palpate

OMedial Head: medial epicondyle of femurLateral Head: lateral epicondyle of femur

ICalcaneus via Achilles Tendon

APlantarflexion of ankle; assists flexion of knee

N“Gastro” (Greek = belly); Can act on the knee or the ankle separately, but not simultaneously; raises heel during running & jumping

OIschialTuberosity

IHead of Fibula (inserts laterally at the knee)

AFlexion of Knee;(to a lesser degree, Extension of Hip)

NMost lateral of the hamstrings; “biceps” indicates “2 heads”

OIschialTuberosity

IPosterior medial tibialcondyle

AFlexion of Knee;(to a lesser degree, Extension of Hip); Medial rotation of flexed knee

NMost medial of the hamstrings; adjacent to Gracilis

Hamstrings

Muscles of the Calf

Key

O = Origin

I = Insertion

A = Action

N = Notes

Healing Hands Institute

muscles of the gluteal region
Muscles of the Gluteal Region

Gluteus Maximus

Gluteus Medius

Piriformis

Tensor Fasciae Latae

Gluteus Minimus

OIliac Crest

IGreater Trochanter of Femur

AAbduction

NWhen standing on one foot, Medius contracts on that side to stabilize pelvis and prevent tilting to unsupported side; alternate contraction of these muscles occurs in walking

OAnterior sacrum

IGreater Trochanter

ALateral rotation of femur at hip

N(Sciatic Nerve); attempt to palpate just posterior to greater trochanter during active lateral rotation of hip; difficult to differentiate from gluteus medius

OIliac Crest (posterior to A.S.I.S.)

IIliotibial Tract (I.T. Band)

AStabilizes knee; prevents collapse of extended knee during walking

NBraces the knee while walking

OPosterior sacrum; Ilium; superior gluteal line of ilium

IGlutealTuberosity of femur; I.T. Tract

AExtension of femur at hip; lateral rotation of extended hip

N“Gluteus” (Greek = Rump); Maximus used mostly for power, as in climbing stairs, running, rising from sitting position

OPosterior Ilium

IAnterior surface of Greater Trochanter

AAbduction

NGluteus Minimus works with anterior portion of Gluteus Medius

Gluteals

Deep Lateral Hip Rotator

Key

O = Origin

I = Insertion

A = Action

N = Notes

Healing Hands Institute

muscles of the medial thigh
Muscles of the Medial Thigh

Pectineus

Sartorius

Gracilis

Adductor Magnus

Adductor Longus

Adductor Brevis

OAnterior Pubis

ILinea Aspera

AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion of femur at hip; medial rotation of femur at hip

NForms medial border of femoral triangle

OInferior Pubic Ramus, Ischialtuberosity & ramus of ischium

ILinea Aspera

A Adduction of femur at hip; assists flexion & extension of femur at hip

NLargest and deepest adductor

OAnterior Superior Iliac Spine (A.S.I.S.)

IUpper medial shaft of tibia (“PesAnserinus”)

AAssists flexion, abduction, lateral rotation of femur at hip; assists flexion, medial rotation of knee

NLongest muscle in the body; most superficial thigh muscle; not an adductor

OAnterior Pubis

IMedial proximal tibia (“PesAnserinus”)

AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion & medial rotation of flexed knee

NMost superficial and medial of adductor group; only adductor that crosses the knee joint; Femur and Gracilis form the shape of the letter “V”

OAnterior Pubis

ILinea Aspera

AFlexion of femur at hip; assists adduction of femur at hip

NUppermost of the medial thigh muscles; only adductor that flexes hip

O Anterior Pubis

I Linea Aspera

AAdduction of femur at hip; assists flexion of femur at hip; medial rotation of femur at hip

N Not present in all individuals; if present, lies deep to adductor longus

Adductors

PESANSERINUS

Three thigh muscles insert at the Superior (proximal) Medial Tibia forming the shape of a “duck foot”:

Sartorius

Gracilis

Semitendinosus

The initial letters of these muscles form the mnemonic expression “Silly Goose Steps”.

Muscle of Anterior Thigh

Key

O = Origin

I = Insertion

A = Action

N = Notes

Healing Hands Institute

muscles of the lateral lower leg
Muscles of the Lateral Lower Leg

Peroneals Notes

Peroneus = Greek for “fibula”

These muscles would be involved in the case of a lateral ankle sprain.

“Eversion” occurs when the foot is turned or rotated outward; i.e., while standing, lifting the lateral edges of the feet while ‘collapsing’ toward the inner arches.

PeroneusLongus

PeroneusBrevis

PeroneusTertius

OLateral shaft of fibula

IBase of 5th metatarsal

AEversion of foot; assists plantar flexion of ankle

NHelps when walking or running on uneven surfaces;a.k.a. FibularisBrevis

OHead & lateral shaft of fibula

IBase of first metatarsal; 1st (medial) cuneiform (plantar surface of foot)

AEversion of foot; assists plantar flexion of ankle

NTraverses the sole of the foot to meet the tibialis anterior tendon to form a stirrup for the foot (wraps under the foot); a.k.a. FibularisLongus

OAnterior distal fibula

IBase of 5th metatarsal

AEversion of foot; assists dorsiflexion (lifts little toe)

NFunctions to place the foot flat on the ground by raising its lateral border

Peroneals

Key

O = Origin

I = Insertion

A = Action

N = Notes

Healing Hands Institute

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