Injuries to muscles and bones
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Injuries to Muscles and Bones. Lesson 14. Musculoskeletal System Review. Bones Muscles Tendons Ligaments. Primary Functions of Musculoskeletal System. Provides shape/support for body Muscles acting on bones allow movement Bones protect vital internal organs . Types of Muscles.

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Injuries to Muscles and Bones

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Injuries to muscles and bones

Injuries to Muscles and Bones

Lesson 14

Musculoskeletal system review

Musculoskeletal System Review

  • Bones

  • Muscles

  • Tendons

  • Ligaments

Primary functions of musculoskeletal system

Primary Functions of Musculoskeletal System

  • Provides shape/support for body

  • Muscles acting on bones allow movement

  • Bones protect vital internal organs

Types of muscles

Types of Muscles

  • Skeletal muscles are voluntary

  • Smooth muscles are involuntary

  • Cardiac muscle is involuntary

  • All muscle activity controlled by nervous system

Mechanisms of injury to musculoskeletal system

Mechanisms of Injury to Musculoskeletal System

  • Direct force: force applied directly to body

  • Indirect force: force transferred from original body site along an extremity to another point

  • Twisting forces: part of body forced to move in unnatural direction

Factors involved in injuries

Factors Involved in Injuries

  • The greater the force:

    • the more severe the injury

    • fracture/joint dislocation more likely

  • Patient’s age and health status

Types of musculoskeletal injuries

Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries

  • First Responders not responsible for determining type of musculoskeletal injury:

    • Fractures

    • Dislocations

    • Sprains

    • Muscle injuries



  • The bone may be completely broken or only cracked

  • Closed fracture - skin not broken

  • Open fracture - open wound at site





  • One or more bones at joint displaced from normal position

  • Ligaments holding bone are torn

  • Result from strong forces

  • Sometimes accompanied by bone fractures or other injuries

Dislocations continued

Dislocations continued

  • Patient cannot use the joint due to pain/structural damage

  • Serious bleeding may result

  • Nearby nerves may be injured

  • With severe dislocation, joint/limb will look deformed



  • Joint injury involving ligament stretching/tearing

  • Typically occur when joint overextended

  • Can be mild or severe

  • Ankles, knees, wrists, fingers most common

  • Considerable swelling often occurs rapidly

Muscle injuries

Muscle Injuries

  • Strains, contusions, cramps

  • Usually less serious than fractures/joint injuries

  • Many causes

Recognizing musculoskeletal injury

Recognizing Musculoskeletal Injury

  • Sometimes injury type is obvious

  • Often you will recognize musculoskeletal injury is present

  • Emergency care is same regardless of injury type

  • Usually not life threatening

  • May be serious and result in pain/disability

Assessment of musculoskeletal injuries

Assessment of Musculoskeletal Injuries

  • Perform standard assessment

  • Ask patient what happened/what he/she felt

  • If large forces involved, consider potential for spinal injury

  • Expose injury site

  • Amount of pain/swelling not indicator of injury severity

  • Immediate medical treatment if no circulation/possible nerve damage

Assess for circulation sensation and movement csm below the injury site

Assess for Circulation, Sensation, And Movement (CSM) Below the Injury Site

  • Check pulse below injury

  • Check skin color and temperature.

  • Touch fingers/toes

  • Does patient feel touch, tingling sensation, numbness.

  • Have patient wiggle fingers/toes

Signs and symptoms

Signs and Symptoms

Signs and symptoms1

Signs and Symptoms

  • Abnormal sensation (numbness, tingling)

  • Inability to move area

  • Difference in temperature

Preventing movement

Preventing Movement

  • Movement causes injury, pain, swelling

  • Bone movement further injures soft tissues

  • Movement generally increases blood flow - may increase internal bleeding/ swelling

  • Manually stabilize or splint injured area

Emergency care of musculoskeletal injuries

Emergency Care of Musculoskeletal Injuries

  • Perform standard patient care

  • Control any life threats

  • Allow patient to be in position of comfort

  • Cover open wounds with sterile dressing

  • Apply cold pack

  • Don’t replace protruding bones

Emergency care of musculoskeletal injuries continued

Emergency Care of Musculoskeletal Injuries Continued

  • Stabilize injured extremity manually

  • Support above and below injury

  • If appropriate, splint extremity

  • Follow local protocol re: oxygen

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