Injuries to muscles and bones
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Injuries to Muscles and Bones. Lesson 14. Musculoskeletal System Review. Bones Muscles Tendons Ligaments. Primary Functions of Musculoskeletal System. Provides shape/support for body Muscles acting on bones allow movement Bones protect vital internal organs . Types of Muscles.

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Presentation Transcript

Musculoskeletal system review
Musculoskeletal System Review

  • Bones

  • Muscles

  • Tendons

  • Ligaments


Primary functions of musculoskeletal system
Primary Functions of Musculoskeletal System

  • Provides shape/support for body

  • Muscles acting on bones allow movement

  • Bones protect vital internal organs


Types of muscles
Types of Muscles

  • Skeletal muscles are voluntary

  • Smooth muscles are involuntary

  • Cardiac muscle is involuntary

  • All muscle activity controlled by nervous system


Mechanisms of injury to musculoskeletal system
Mechanisms of Injury to Musculoskeletal System

  • Direct force: force applied directly to body

  • Indirect force: force transferred from original body site along an extremity to another point

  • Twisting forces: part of body forced to move in unnatural direction


Factors involved in injuries
Factors Involved in Injuries

  • The greater the force:

    • the more severe the injury

    • fracture/joint dislocation more likely

  • Patient’s age and health status


Types of musculoskeletal injuries
Types of Musculoskeletal Injuries

  • First Responders not responsible for determining type of musculoskeletal injury:

    • Fractures

    • Dislocations

    • Sprains

    • Muscle injuries


Fractures
Fractures

  • The bone may be completely broken or only cracked

  • Closed fracture - skin not broken

  • Open fracture - open wound at site



Dislocations1
Dislocations

  • One or more bones at joint displaced from normal position

  • Ligaments holding bone are torn

  • Result from strong forces

  • Sometimes accompanied by bone fractures or other injuries


Dislocations continued
Dislocations continued

  • Patient cannot use the joint due to pain/structural damage

  • Serious bleeding may result

  • Nearby nerves may be injured

  • With severe dislocation, joint/limb will look deformed


Sprains
Sprains

  • Joint injury involving ligament stretching/tearing

  • Typically occur when joint overextended

  • Can be mild or severe

  • Ankles, knees, wrists, fingers most common

  • Considerable swelling often occurs rapidly


Muscle injuries
Muscle Injuries

  • Strains, contusions, cramps

  • Usually less serious than fractures/joint injuries

  • Many causes


Recognizing musculoskeletal injury
Recognizing Musculoskeletal Injury

  • Sometimes injury type is obvious

  • Often you will recognize musculoskeletal injury is present

  • Emergency care is same regardless of injury type

  • Usually not life threatening

  • May be serious and result in pain/disability


Assessment of musculoskeletal injuries
Assessment of Musculoskeletal Injuries

  • Perform standard assessment

  • Ask patient what happened/what he/she felt

  • If large forces involved, consider potential for spinal injury

  • Expose injury site

  • Amount of pain/swelling not indicator of injury severity

  • Immediate medical treatment if no circulation/possible nerve damage


Assess for circulation sensation and movement csm below the injury site
Assess for Circulation, Sensation, And Movement (CSM) Below the Injury Site

  • Check pulse below injury

  • Check skin color and temperature.

  • Touch fingers/toes

  • Does patient feel touch, tingling sensation, numbness.

  • Have patient wiggle fingers/toes


Signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms the Injury Site


Signs and symptoms1
Signs and Symptoms the Injury Site

  • Abnormal sensation (numbness, tingling)

  • Inability to move area

  • Difference in temperature


Preventing movement
Preventing Movement the Injury Site

  • Movement causes injury, pain, swelling

  • Bone movement further injures soft tissues

  • Movement generally increases blood flow - may increase internal bleeding/ swelling

  • Manually stabilize or splint injured area


Emergency care of musculoskeletal injuries
Emergency Care of Musculoskeletal Injuries the Injury Site

  • Perform standard patient care

  • Control any life threats

  • Allow patient to be in position of comfort

  • Cover open wounds with sterile dressing

  • Apply cold pack

  • Don’t replace protruding bones


Emergency care of musculoskeletal injuries continued
Emergency Care of Musculoskeletal Injuries Continued the Injury Site

  • Stabilize injured extremity manually

  • Support above and below injury

  • If appropriate, splint extremity

  • Follow local protocol re: oxygen


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