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Gender-Inclusion in Commercial Dairy Chains in the Global South. Silja K. Heyland. Supervisors: Angelica Senders and Jan Hoekstra. 9 th July 2014. Agenda. Background Problem Definition Research Objective Research Question Methodology Results Conclusion Q uestions an d Answers

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Gender inclusion in commercial dairy chains in the global south

Gender-Inclusion in Commercial Dairy Chains in the Global South

Silja K. Heyland

Supervisors: Angelica Senders and Jan Hoekstra

9th July 2014


  • Background

  • Problem Definition

  • Research Objective

  • Research Question

  • Methodology

  • Results

  • Conclusion

  • Questions and Answers

  • Recommendations

Dairy and gender
Dairy and Gender

  • Dairy production impact

  • Dairy activities

  • Effects on gender inequalities

    ‘The FAO assumes that gender equity would increase food production with 20 to 30 per cent’.

Problem definition
Problem Definition

A systematic overview of success factors in gender-sensitive dairy chain development in Africa, Latin America and Asia, and business arguments that can motivate local business to invest in gender-sensitive dairy chain development,are missing.

Research objective
Research Objective

  • Attractive arguments for local business

  • Interventions that contribute to successful gender-inclusion

Research question
Research Question

What are the key success factors of gender-inclusive interventions that enhance dairy value chain development from a business perspective in the global south?

  • How are commercial dairy chains organized at primary level?

  • How was gender included in gender-inclusive dairy chain development to improve business?

  • What is the concrete impact of gender-inclusive dairy chain upgrading activities in terms of both business performance and gender equality?


  • Desk research

  • Field research

  • Gender - Sensitive Value Chain Mapping

  • Gender and Value Chain Empowerment Diamond

Methodology ()

Gender - Sensitive Value Chain Mapping

Methodology 2
Methodology (2)

Gender and Value Chain Empowerment Diamond


  • Value Chain Activities

    • Improved milk quality and increased milk volume

    • Employment in business support services

    • Participation in meetings and trainings

  • Value Chain Governance

    • Access to (market) information and knowledge

    • Formalized chain activities

    • Participation in business decision-making

Results 1
Results (1)

  • Structure

    • HH: Men appreciate women’s activities

    • HH: Women are allowed to travel

    • Society: Women receive respect

    • Society: More female leadership positions

  • Agency

    • Confidence and self-esteem

    • Access to finance and loans

    • Increase in income

Business arguments
Business Arguments

  • SDVCP and BOAM: Endline evaluation

  • EADD: Applyinggenderlens in producerorganization

  • KDVCP: Householdsurvey

  • WDCLP: Measurementsthroughself-helpgroups

Business arguments1
Business Arguments

  • SDVCP, BOAM, WDCLP: Quality-based payment system

  • SDVCP, WDCLP, SSLLP: Introduction of lactometer and fat meter

  • WDCLP: Measurement of temperature and bacterial testing

  • MASRENACE: Establishing quality monitoring system

Business arguments2
Business Arguments

- SDVCP: Measured performances of different gender compositions

- KDSCP: Elected female cooperative leader

- MASRENACE: Elected female cooperative union leader

Business arguments3
Business Arguments

BOAM: Processorsneedtoaddresswomen

WDCLP: Loyal milk supplier, morehygienic

All: higher milk volumesandbetter milk quality

Business arguments4
Business Arguments

EADD and DVCP: big spill-overeffect

BOAM: Women in committeeKDSCP: Women attractotherwomentojoinWDCLP: “If a women is in a leadership position naturally other women follow”


  • Sharing benefits and joint decision-making is depending on cultural habits at site level.

  • Women do on average at least half of the dairy activities (mentioned from all projects).

  • Initial gender studies are important for each new development project.

  • Women need to have incentives to supply milk otherwise they may side-sell milk to other markets.

  • Collaboration between men and women is essential when approaching new (formal) markets.

  • Gender-inclusion increases food production (FAO), they are effective and business attractive.


To Development Organization:

  • Include gender-inclusive interventions from the beginning in all dairy chain projects.

  • Promote household cooperation by organizing dairy farmer excursions for dairy producer couples to other (national) sites in which gender-inclusion is practised.

  • Make female dairy producer visible.

Recommendations 1
Recommendations (1)

To Agri-ProFocus:

  • Agri-ProFocus dairy network could organize regular webinars on gender-inclusion in dairy chain development.

  • Stimulate discussion on gender-inclusion in the dairy network.

  • Include gender events and new informationin the Agri-ProFocus newsletter.

Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention!

  • Contact:

  • Silja K. HeylandE-Mail:

  • Gender in Value Chains ning »

    Nothing can stop an idea whose time has come. (Victor Hugo)


  • Pictures:

  • [Gender ballancing] 2013. The Bull&Bear, The Gender Yield: A Business Case for Gender Equality [image online]. Available at: <>[Assessed 04 July 2014].

  • [Gender thinking bulb] no date. Gender roles[blog] no date. Availabe at:<>[Assessed 04 July 2014].

  • [methodology pic, black and white women] 2005. Promoting gender-sensitive enterpreneurship via microfinance institutions. [powerpoint online]. Available at: < >[Assessed 04 July 2014].

  • [Design is always Objective] 2011. The Difference Between Art And Design [image online]. Available at: <> [Assessed 04 July 2014].

  • [“We can do it”] 2014. We can do it [image search online]. Available at: <>

  • [cartoon one and two] 2012. Challenging chains to change. [image online]. Amsterdam: KIT, Agri-ProFocus and IIRR, p. 100 and p.114