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Anet Badali Faculty Mentor James W. Meeker, Ph.D, J.D Criminology, Law and Society University of California, Irvine. A SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: A STUDY OF SANTA ANA. Domestic Violence in Context. Sociologist C. Wright Mills

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Anet Badali

Faculty Mentor

James W. Meeker, Ph.D, J.D

Criminology, Law and Society

University of California, Irvine


Domestic violence in context
Domestic Violence in Context

Sociologist C. Wright Mills

Consider marriage. Inside a marriage a man and a woman may experience personal troubles, but when the divorce rate during the first four years of marriage is 250 out of every 1,000 attempts, this is an indication of a structural issue having to do with the institutions of marriage and the family and other institutions that bear upon them...

In the United States, four women die every day due to domestic violence. FBI has reported approximately 1400 a year (National Organization for Women, 2006).

572,000 reports of assaults are officially reported each year, but estimates indicate two to four million cases (National Organization for Women, 2006).

Overview domestic violence in santa ana california
Overview: Domestic Violence in Santa Ana, California


To identify socio-demographic variables that correlate to increased rates of domestic abuse.

To identify potential predictive models of domestic violence.

Multi-agency perspective on a social problem.

Map represents an aerial photograph of the city of Santa Ana with an outline of the streets.

Main objectives
Main Objectives

To allow local agencies to evaluate the type of impact they have had within the community.

Ex: Are residents utilizing resources?

To influence local agencies to engage in a collaborative effort to curb domestic violence.

To begin allocating resources more effectively and to the right population.


Addresses of residents who have identified domestic abuse across 3 local agencies from 2003-2006.

Santa Ana Police Department

Calls for service where officers were dispatched for domestic abuse incidents.

Legal Aid Society of Orange County

Survey of helpline call-in clients who self-identified as domestic abuse victims within the past year.

Orange County Courts

Addresses of residents who have obtained Temporary Restraining Orders (TROs) in domestic situations.

Demographic information obtained from U.S. Census Bureau website.

Data continued
Data Continued..

Legal Aid

  • 2003: 346 self-identified

  • 2004: 279 self-identified

  • 2005: 279 self- identified

  • 2006: 142 self-identified

  • Court

    • 2003: 295 TROs

    • 2004: 628 TROs

    • 2005: 554 TROs

    • 2006: 492 TROs

  • Police

    • 2003: 5456 incidents

    • 2004: 5278 incidents

    • 2005: 5130 incidents

    • 2006: 4943 incidents

Research design
Research Design

Geographic Information System (GIS)

Spatial Mapping and 3D Analysis

Plot out addresses and create “Hot Spots”


Statistical Analysis

Correlation and Regression

  • Domestic violence was operationalized using PD data

    • Incidents of domestic violence

  • Help-Seeking was operationalized using Court data

    - Obtaining a TRO shows an effort to help oneself

PD 2003 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

PD 2004 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

PD 2005 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

PD 2006 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

TRO 2003 Kernal

Density/ Hot Spots

TRO 2004 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

TRO 2005 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

TRO 2006 Kernal

Density/Hot Spots

Analysis correlations

Hypothesized following variables would correlate to help-seeking behavior:


Race and Ethnicity

Married Households with Children

Foreign Born Status

Average Family Size

Analysis: Correlations

Findings help-seeking behavior:

Positive correlation exists between:


Average Family Size

Married Households with Children

Choropleth map computed using POVSTATTOT which is the sum of residents living within 200% of the poverty line. The elevation levels represent TROs obtained in each block group from 2003-2006.

Findings continued

Regression Analysis - best predictors of help-seeking behavior are:


2006 PD Data

Married Households with Children

Explain about 46% of the variance

Findings Continued..

  • Multiple Regression test:

    • Poverty

    • 2006 PD Data

  • Indications:

    • Found that 2006 PD data better predictor of 2006 Court data than previous court data.

    • Collaborative efforts in targeting areas for potential outreach may prove to be effective.

    • To predict help-seeking behavior, should be studying what is happening here and now.

Patterns of help seeking behavior
Patterns of Help-Seeking Behavior behavior are:

Identified addresses with 20 (+) hits across agencies.

Used unit numbers to track patterns and trends.

74% of households contacted PD only.

1% reached out to Courts only.

Of the remaining 145 (25%) households about 20% reached out to Courts first then had contact with Police.

49% had contact with Police then reached out to Courts.

92 address locations
92 Address Locations behavior are:

Areas of Interest behavior are:

Future research
Future Research behavior are:

Continue monitoring help-seeking behavior in order to effectively allocate resources.

Continue data collection to build a strong and accurate model.

Extend the project to surrounding cities in Orange County. Are the findings the same?

Acknowledgements behavior are:

Professor James W. Meeker

Professor Valerie Jenness

Professor George E. Tita

Professor John Hipp

Professor Joe Devoy

Elvis Tran

Santa Ana Police Department

Chief Walters and Commander Gominsky

Legal Aid Society of Orange County

Bob Cohen

Orange County Courts

Sandy Hilger

Director, Planning and Research Unit