The internet simple on the outside
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 20

The Internet: Simple on the Outside… PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 75 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The Internet: Simple on the Outside…. Content Providers. End Users. Internet. …But Problematic on the Inside. Peering Points. Content Providers. End Users. Network Providers. UUNet. NAP. Qwest. NAP. AOL. The Four Bottlenecks. The First Mile Peering Points Network Backbones

Download Presentation

The Internet: Simple on the Outside…

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The internet simple on the outside

The Internet:Simple on the Outside…

ContentProviders

EndUsers

Internet


But problematic on the inside

…But Problematic on the Inside

Peering

Points

ContentProviders

End

Users

Network Providers

UUNet

NAP

Qwest

NAP

AOL


The four bottlenecks

The Four Bottlenecks

  • The First Mile

  • Peering Points

  • Network Backbones

  • The Last Mile


Bottleneck 1 first mile

Bottleneck #1: First Mile

  • Content Provider now has worldwide audience; centralization doesn’t work

400 million potential users

= huge infrastructure problem


Bottleneck 2 peering points

Bottleneck #2: Peering Points

  • No single network controls a large % of access traffic

  • No economic incentive to peer and difficult to implement

6% Worldcom

% ofNetworkTraffic

ISPs (7,000)


Bottleneck implications

Bottleneck Implications

  • Slow downloads

    • Content must traverse multiple backbones and long distances

  • Unreliable performance

    • Content may be blocked by congestion or backbone peering problems

  • Not scalable

    • Usage limited by bandwidth available at master site

  • Inferior streaming quality

    • Packet loss, congestion, and narrow pipes degrade stream quality

  • Broadband doesn’t help

    • As broadband becomes ubiquitous, the disaster of centralized solutions becomes more obvious—not better


Outline

Outline

How the Internet Works

The Akamai Solution

Company Origins & Overview

Technology Overview

Technological Challenges


The akamai solution

The Akamai Solution

ContentProviders

EndUsers

Akamai Servers

at Network Edge

NAP

NAP


Advantages

  • Reliable

    • No single point of failure

    • Automatic failover

Advantages

  • Fast

    • Content is served from locations near to end users

  • Scalable

    • Master site no longer requires massive available bandwidth


Keynote results

Keynote Results

Web Site Performance

Typical Improvement with Akamai

Noon May 16

Noon May 18

Noon May 22

Noon May 24

Noon May 15

Noon May 17

Noon May 19

Noon May 20

Noon May 21

Noon May 23

Noon May 25

Noon May 26

Noon May 27

Web object delivered without Akamai

Web object delivered by Akamai


Speedup for sample of 94 websites

Speedup for sample of 94 websites

  • Average speedup of 2-46 times

  • Median of 7 times, 86% reduction in download times


Downloading www xyz com the old way

DNS

Customer Web Server

1

WWW.XYZ.COM

2

10.10.123.8

5

3

4

6

7

10.10.123.8

Downloading www.xyz.com —The Old Way

  • Browser obtains IP address for domain of embedded objects for page

  • User enters www.xyz.com

  • Browser requests IP address for www.xyz.com

  • Browser requests embedded objects

  • DNS returns IP address

  • Browser requests HTML

  • Customer’s Web server returns embedded objects

  • Customer Web server returns HTML


Finding the ip address for www xyz com the old way

.net Root(InterNIC)

4

5

TTL:1 Day

Local Name

Server

6

7

xyz.com

DNS Servers

TTL: 30 Minutes

8

3

10

1

2

Browser’s Cache

9

OS

Finding the IP Address for www.xyz.com — The Old Way


Downloading www xyz com with akamai s edgesuite

Customer Web server

WWW.XYZ.COM

DNS

1

2

6

5

7

4

3

Downloading www.xyz.com with Akamai’s EdgeSuite

  • User enters www.xyz.com

  • Optimal Akamai server returns Akamaized HTML

  • Browser requests IP address for www.xyz.com

  • Browser obtains IP address of optimal Akamai servers for embedded objects

  • DNS returns IP address of optimal Akamai server

  • Browser obtains objects from optimal Akamai servers

  • Browser requests HTML

  • Akamai server assembles page, contacting customer Web server if necessary


Key components

Key Components

  • DNS Resolution: Finding the IP address for www.xyz.com

  • Page Assembly

  • Connecting from the edge to the source


Finding the ip address the akamai way

xyz.com

4

.net Root(InterNIC)

5

10.10.123.5

xyz.com’s nameserver

akamai.net

a212.g.akamai.net

8

7

9

6

15.15.125.6

www.xyz.com

10

g.akamai.net

11

20.20.123.55

Akamai High-Level DNS Servers

12

a212.g.akamai.net

13

Akamai Low-Level DNS Servers

30.30.123.5

Local Name Server

14

3

16

1

2

Browser’s Cache

15

OS

Finding the IP Address:The Akamai Way

End User


Dns maps time to live

DNS Maps & Time-To-Live

TimeToLive

  • Maps created using info on:

    • Internet congestion

    • System loads

    • User demands

    • Server status

  • Maps are constantly recalculated:

    • Every few minutes for HLDNS

    • Every few seconds for LLDNS

1 day

Root

30 min.

HLDNS

30 sec.

LLDNS

TTL of DNS responses gets shorter further down the hierarchy


Page assembly

Page Assembly

Container Page[TTL=5d]

Site owners create container pages that can be populated with varying content

[XYZ news, content, promotions, etc. TTL=5d]

[TTL=8h]

[TTL=15m]

[Breaking headlines TTL=2h]


Page assembly1

Page Assembly

If gender = male and geography = New York then show article on NY Giants Sportswear

EdgeSuite enables Web sites to build and deliver customizedcontent at theedge

[XYZ news, content, promotions, etc. TTL=5d]

[TTL=8h]

[TTL=15m]

[Breaking headlines TTL=2h]


Syntax example

Syntax Example

<html>

<asi version = “1.0”>

<head><title>Akamai Weather Forecast

</title></head>

<asi if= ”$geo == dc” include=”dcwthr.htm”/>

<asi else-if= ”$geo == boston” include=”bostonwthr.htm”/>

<asi else if = ”$geo == nyc “ include= “nycwthr.htm”/>

<asi else == “ “ include= “uswthr.htm”/>

</asi>

</html>

  • Similar to SSI so it’s easily understood— but also breaks performance bottlenecks when distributed across 6,000 servers

  • Used as an API to third-party applications on Akamai’s network


  • Login