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Section 1: Crime in the United States Section 2: The Criminal Justice System Section 3: Juvenile Crime. Chapter 16 Citizenship and the Law. Section 1:Crime in the United States. The Main Idea

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Chapter 16 Citizenship and the Law

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Section 1 crime in the united states section 2 the criminal justice system section 3 juvenile crime

Section 1:Crime in the United States

Section 2:The Criminal Justice System

Section 3:Juvenile Crime

Chapter 16Citizenship and the Law


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

Section 1:Crime in the United States

The Main Idea

When a person breaks a law, it is called a crime. There are several types of crimes and a variety of reasons why people commit crimes.

Reading Focus

  • What are five different types of crime?

  • What are four possible causes of crime?

  • How do we fight crime in the United States?


Crimes against persons

Section 1:Crime in the United States

Crimes against persons:

Violent crimes—homicide, hate crimes, aggravated assault, or forcible rape


Crime against property

Section 1:Crime in the United States

Crime against property:

  • The majority of crimes

  • Involves stealing or destroying property—petty larceny, grand larceny, vandalism, or arson

  • Robbery involves property and persons.


Different types of crime

Section 1:Crime in the United States

Different types of crime:

  • Homicide, aggravated assault, forcible rape, larceny, vandalism, arson, robbery

  • Hate crimes—violent crimes committed because of prejudice

  • Victimless—gambling and sale, possession, and use of illegal drugs

  • White collar—committed by people in their work; stealing, embezzlement, and fraud

  • Organized—a crime syndicate of career criminals; provides illegal goods and services; uses violence as a tool


Hate crimes 02 49

Hate Crimes [02:49]


Causes of crime

Section 1:Crime in the United States

Causes of crime:

  • Poverty

  • Illegal drug use

  • Permissive society

  • Urbanization


Fighting crime

Section 1:Crime in the United States

Fighting crime:

  • 1994—National crime bill includes tougher sentences and grants for police officers and new jails.

  • Crime prevention education is taught in some schools.


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

SECTION 1

Types of Crime

organized crimes

victimless crimes

white-collarcrimes

Question: What are the different types of crime?


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

Section 2:The Criminal Justice System

The Main Idea

Police officers arrest people believed to be breaking the law. An accused person must be tried and, if found guilty, punished.

Reading Focus

  • What is the role of police officers in the criminal justice system?

  • What is the function of the courts after a suspect has been arrested?

  • How does our corrections system punish lawbreakers?


Police officers

Section 2:The Criminal Justice System

Police Officers

  • Protect life and property, prevent crime, and arrest violators

  • Protect individual rights, maintain peace, and control traffic

  • Act as peacemakers, advisers, protectors, and community members


Police officers continued

Section 2:The Criminal Justice System

Police Officers (continued)

  • Education, background check, aptitude tests, physical and psychological exams are required.

  • Academies teach law, community relations, gathering evidence, arrest procedures, records keeping, first aid, weapon use, and other physical skills.


After a suspect is arrested

Section 2:The Criminal Justice System

After a suspect is arrested:

  • Suspect is entitled to due process before questioning.

  • Preliminary hearing—evidence evaluated and charges dropped or trial is set; bail set

  • Indictment—a formal charge is made

  • Arraignment—suspect makes a plea before a judge

  • Trial—defendant is presumed innocent; a judge presides and a jury deliberates the case presented by the prosecution and the defense

  • Sentencing—judge decides the punishment; some states have mandatory sentences for certain crimes


Consequences 01 14

Consequences [01:14]


Punishing lawbreakers

Section 2:The Criminal Justice System

Punishing lawbreakers:

  • Fines

  • Imprisonment (People hold different views of its purpose: retribution, deterrence, rehabilitation, or social protection.)

  • Parole (Early release based on good behavior; overcrowding has forced paroles.)

  • Capital punishment (Opponents believe it violates the Eighth Amendment; it remains controversial.)


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

SECTION 2

Question:

What happens after a suspect is arrested?

Suspect isarrested

Suspect is booked

Preliminary hearing

Sentenced

Trial

Arraignment

Indictment


Teens and consequences 01 44

Teens and Consequences [01:44]


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

Section 3:Juvenile Crime

The Main Idea

Most states prefer to handle juvenile, or young, criminals differently than adult criminals, but for some crimes this practice is changing.

Reading Focus

  • What is juvenile crime?

  • What are some possible causes of juvenile crime?

  • How does the judicial system handle juveniles who break the law?

  • What are some ways to avoid trouble with the law?

Juvenile Court [02:22]


Possible causes of juvenile crime

Section 3:Juvenile Crime

Possible causes of juvenile crime:

  • Poor home conditions

  • Poor neighborhood conditions

  • Gang membership

  • Dropping out of school and unemployment

  • Alcohol and drugs

  • Peer pressure


Juvenile rights 03 20

Juvenile Rights [03:20]


The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles

Section 3:Juvenile Crime

The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles:

  • Prior to late 1800s—Juveniles at least seven years old were tried in adult courts and sentenced to prison or death.

  • 1870s—Reformers argued juveniles required special understanding.

  • Juvenile court system was set up to re-educate offenders.


The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles continued

Section 3:Juvenile Crime

The judicial system has changed the way it handles juveniles: (continued)

  • Hearings determine guilt or innocence of juvenile offenders.

  • 1967—Supreme Court granted juveniles the right of due process.

  • Juveniles do not have the right to a jury trial.


Juvenile detention center 01 06

Juvenile Detention Center [01:06]


Juveniles charged and found guilty

Section 3:Juvenile Crime

Juveniles charged and found guilty

  • may be placed in a foster home.

  • may be sent to a corrections facility like a training school.

  • may be given probation.

  • may be sent to a boot camp.

Juveniles charged with felonies are often tried in adult courts and punished accordingly.


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

juvenile correctional facility

probation

Juvenile Punishment Options

placement in a training school

boot camp

SECTION 3

Question:

What happens when juveniles are charged and found guilty of breaking the law?


Chapter 16 citizenship and the law

Chapter 16 Wrap-Up

  • 1.Identify and describe specific examples of five categories of crime.

  • 2.What are some causes of crime?

  • 3.What steps does a criminal suspect go through from the time of arrest to the time of sentencing?

  • 4.What are the punishments that a convicted criminal faces?

  • 5.What are the possible causes of juvenile delinquency?

  • 6.What may a judge do if he or she finds a juvenile guilty of a crime?


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