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Psychoanalytic Perspective. “first comprehensive theory of personality”. University of Vienna 1873 Voracious Reader Medical School Graduate. (1856-1939). Specialized in Nervous Disorders Some patients’ disorders had no physical cause!. Hypnosis. Free Association. “Psychoanalysis”.

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Psychoanalytic perspective
Psychoanalytic Perspective

“first comprehensive theory of personality”

University of Vienna 1873

Voracious Reader

Medical School Graduate

(1856-1939)

Specialized in Nervous

Disorders

Some patients’ disorders

had no physical cause!


Psychoanalytic perspective1

Hypnosis

Free

Association

“Psychoanalysis”

Psychoanalytic Perspective

“first comprehensive theory of personality”

Q: What caused neurological

symptoms in patients with no

neurological problems?

Unconscious


The unconscious

Unconscious

below the surface

(thoughts, feelings,

wishes, memories)

The Unconscious

“the mind is like an iceburg - mostly hidden”

Conscious Awareness

small part above surface

(Preconscious)

Repression

banishing unacceptable

thoughts & passions to

unconscious

Dreams & Slips


Freud personality structure

Satisfaction

without the guilt?

Super

Ego

Ego

Id

Freud & Personality Structure

“Personality arises from conflict twixt agressive,

pleasure-seeking impulses and social restraints”


Freud personality structure1

Super

Ego

Ego

Id

Freud & Personality Structure

Id - energy constantly striving to satisfy basic drives

Pleasure Principle

Ego - seeks to gratify the Id in realistic ways

Reality Principle

Super Ego

- voice of conscience

that focuses on how

we ought to behave


Freud personality development
Freud & Personality Development

“personality forms during the first few years of life,

rooted in unresolved conflicts of early childhood”

Psychosexual Stages

Oral (0-18 mos) - centered on the mouth

Anal (18-36 mos) - focus on bowel/bladder elim.

Phallic (3-6 yrs) - focus on genitals/“Oedipus Complex”

(Identification & Gender Identity)

Latency (6-puberty) - sexuality is dormant

Genital (puberty on) - sexual feelings toward others

Strong conflict can fixate an individual at Stages 1,2 or 3



PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORY

SEX:

Something That Brings Bodily Pleasure (Not only genital)

LIBIDO:

Sexual Energy

EROGENOUS ZONE:

An Area Of The Body On Which Sexual Energy Is Concentrated (An area of the body that brings pleasure)


Freudian concepts

GENITAL

LATENCY

PHALLIC (OEDIPAL)

ANAL

ORAL

SUPEREGO

EGO

ID

FREUDIAN CONCEPTS

PERSONALITY CONSTRUCTS

STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT


Freudian assumptions
FREUDIAN ASSUMPTIONS

  • Are people active or passive?

  • Passive??

  • What is the relationship between learning and development?

  • How do people change?

  • Maturational

  • What motivates people?

  • ID—pleasure principle


  • How important is behavior?

  • We know nothing from behavior. We need to understand what motivates the behavior.

  • How important is thinking?

  • Conflict free sphere of the ego.

  • 7. How important are emotions?

  • Vitally Important. The theory is one of emotional developmental.


Stage characteristics
STAGE CHARACTERISTICS

  • Each stage is named for the area of the body on which sexual energy (libido) is centered during that stage.

  • The stages are sequential, but they are NOT hierarchical.

  • Regression to and fixation at a stage can occur.


ID

  • is innate

  • is motivated by pleasure

  • is the source of libidinal energy

  • contains basic drives: hunger, thirst

  • aggression, anger, destruction

  • contains no logic or rational thoughts, just DESIRES


EGO

  • Develops as the Id comes into contact with reality

  • Governed by the reality principle

  • uses reasoning in order to come to conclusions

  • serves as a check on the Id--delays actions until they are “reasonable.”


Superego
SUPEREGO

  • Develops as a result of internalizing parental standards and values

  • Has two aspects:

Conscience

Ego Ideal


Conscience superego
CONSCIENCE(SUPEREGO)

Tells us what NOT to do and punishes us if we do something wrong by making us have feelings of...

GUILT


Ego ideal superego
EGO IDEAL(SUPEREGO)

  • Tells us what to do. It is the POSITIVE aspect of the superego.

  • Provides goals for life

  • Is the source of ideals


Defense mechanisms
Defense Mechanisms

Ego

Id

When the inner war

gets out of hand, the

result is Anxiety

Ego protects itself via

Defense Mechanisms

Super

Ego

Defense Mechanisms reduce/redirect

anxiety by distorting reality


Defense mechanisms1
Defense Mechanisms

  • Repression - banishes certain thoughts/feelings from consciousness (underlies all other defense

    mechanisms)

  • Regression - retreating to earlier stage of fixated

    development

  • ReactionFormation - ego makes unacceptable impulses appear as their opposites

  • Projection - attributes threatening impulses to others

  • Rationalization - generate self-justifying explanations to hide the real reasons for our actions

  • Displacement - divert impulses toward a more

    acceptable object

  • Sublimation - transform unacceptable impulse into

    something socially valued


The humanistic perspective
The Humanistic Perspective

Maslow’s

Self-Actualizing

Person

Roger’s

Person-Centered

Perspective

“Healthy” rather than “Sick”

Individual as greater than the sum of test scores


Maslow self actualization

Esteem

Love Needs

Safety

Physiological

Maslow & Self-Actualization

Self-Actualization

the process of fufilling our potential

  • Studied healthy, creative people

  • Abe Lincoln, Tom Jefferson &

  • Eleanor Roosevelt

  • Self-Aware & Self-Accepting

  • Open & Spontaneous

  • Loving & Caring

  • Problem-Centered not Self-Centered


Roger s person centered perspective

People are basically good

with actualizing tendencies.

Roger’s Person-Centered Perspective

Given the right environmental

conditions, we will develop

to our full potentials

Genuineness, Acceptance, Empathy

Self Concept - central feature

of personality (+ or -)


Personal control
Personal Control

Internal Locus of Control

You pretty much control your own destiny

External Locus of Control

Luck, fate and/or powerful others control your destiny

  • Methods of Study

  • Correlate feelings of control with behavior

  • Experiment by raising/lowering people’s sense of

  • control and noting effects


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