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4. Диэлектрические материалы

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() - , . . , , . . , DWg 3 . , 106... 1016 . , , . p , , p p, p. p p , , , p pp, p p, . p p p p, , , , , , , p. - , , , . p, p, pp, .


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, , (-), (. 4.1). :

E=U/d, /, (4.1)

U - , d - .

D0

D0=e0E, /2, (4.2)

e0=8,8510-12 / - .

. E, - - (. 4.1). .

. - P -

P=e0cE, /2, (4.3)

c - -, c >0.


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D D0 P, D=D0+P. D0 P (4.2) (4.3), ,

D=e0(1+c)E=e0eE, /2, (4.4)

e=1+c - , e>1.

(4.4)

e=(1/e0)D/. (4.5)

(4.4) D=f(E) . D=f(E), . , - . D=f(E) . 4.2.


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(. 4.3). ,

a=/, 2, (4.6)

=q - , -q +q, ; - , 10-10 ; - , /.

- , . . . , , .

- , . . (. 4.4). , (2), (, ), (NaCl), .

, a=`/, `- , .


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- . - - (. 4.5, ). t=10-15...10-14

- . - (. 4.5, ). - t10-13

. , , , (. 4.5, ). t= 10-6... 10-10 .

, - (. 4.5, ). - t=1...104 .


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1

J=jwe0eE, /2 , (4.9)

j= - ;we0e=s - .

.

- ,

J=sE, /2, (4.10)

s- .

tgd,

, (4.11)

r=1/s - , .

, tgd- - P - P - , - -.


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2

, (4.15)

= -, ; " , .

P= 02tgd, . (4.16)

P= "0 2, . (4.17)

(4.11), (4.15) ,

. (4.18)


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tg f -

, (4.19)

- ; 0 ; - ; - ; t .

f0

f tg d0.

(4.19) 1 . 4.8.

2 . 4.8 - - =(f).

-

f=


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-P , ( ).

P . -, t - 10-10...10-6 .

. 10-17...10-14 , t>10-13 , .

. , ( ), , , .


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1

, - Iv - Is. , . 4.10, . , R Rv Rs

R=RvRs /(Rv+Rs ), (4.21)

Rv - , Rs - .


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2

Rv Rs , . Rv

Rv=rvd/S, , (4.22)

rv - , ;

d - , ;

S - , 2.

Rs

Rs=rsl/h, , (4.23)

rs - , , ;

h - , ;

l - , .


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(-60...+125 o), .

- , . - ( ).

- ( W) ( W1):

s=s0exp(-W /kT)+ s0exp(-W1/kT).

s=Nqm, (4.24)

N- , -3, q - , ; m=v/E - , 2/; v - , /, , /.


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.

N . , s

s=Nq(m++m-)=s0exp(-W /kT), (4.30)

N- ; q - , m+ m- - ; s0 - , ; W - .

, (). - , , , - . ( - ) , (). . . . .


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- - . . - - - , . E

E=U/d, /, (4.31)

d - , ; U - , .

U - , , . .


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: , , .

1. - () . .

I=I0exp(bU), (4.32)

I0 b - , U -

2. - , . , . - U T

, (4.38)

3. . .

4. . , .


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. , , , , .

: . .

. -, , .


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4.1.


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pp p (), p pp p p. p p , p p (103...104) p - p. p p p pp, p pp p.

p p p. p n, p p.p n=2...3 , n 20 . n=1500... 2000 , , p n=5000... 6000 p p.


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, ;

, .

, . - ;

. -. , ;

..


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(p) .

1. c , p p ( ). : tgd310-4, e=2...3, r=1014...1016 , =40...250 /.

2. , p p ( ). : tgd310-2, e=3...6, r=1011...1014 , =15...50 /.


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p p

p p 2H4. -[- CH2-CH2-]-n, n=1500. , , . p p 100... 130 .

p C8H8 ( 33). -[-CH2-CH(C6H5)-]-n, n=6000. p p 70...85 . p p p p C3H6. -[-CH2-CH(CH3)-]-n. , p 165...170 .

pp (, p-4, ) p pp C2F4. -[-CF2-CF2-]-n. p -4 415 .


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p p

p () pC2H3Cl, - 12...14 .

p (, ) p . p p -p 3000, 2H4(OH2) p C6H4(COOH)2. p- 260 .

p p . p p . pp - 100 +150 .

p p ( p C2H3OH), .

, , , 68. -[-(CH2)-CO-NH-]-n, CH2 - , k=4...8, CO-NH - . , k=5, k=6. 215...230 .

p - , . p , p 175...180 .


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- , , , . .

1. . (C6H5OH) 42 . (CH2O) 26 , .

- p , .

p (, , ) . .

p , .

2. p p (C6H5NH2) p p. p p p , .

3. pp , ----- -Si-O-Si-O-.

4. - p , p p p - p, 1:(8...10). p p p .


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p

p : (p p), (p , , , p , ), p p, .

. p p p. p p 160...180 .

p 150 p - pp pp, :

p , / , , 03-010-02 ( -18-2);

p p , p, 3-340-65 (. -211-3);

p , p p, pp, 2-090-69 (. -18-23);

p , p , p pp ( ), p, 3-342-02 (. -214-22);

p p 180 , p, 2-010-60 (. -18-56); p p p ;

pp -4, -4-10, -4, -4; p p .


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( 2718) p p p (), . p p p p. 0,2...50 .

( 12652) p p, , p .

p p ., -41 , , . 180 .

p p p , p p. p p 0,035...0,05 . p pp p p.

p :

-1-35 - p p 35 ;

-2-50 - p p 50 .

p -1-50, -2-50 1...2 . p -1, -2 0,2...0,25 . -1-35, -2-50 .


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pp , , pp. p , . .


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p p, p , p p pp p. pp , p , p .

, , p. , p , p pp , pp .

p pp p p p p p p. p, p . p .


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, , . , . p , p p p. . - , p . p p 24...72 . ( ) 0,5...1 . p p p :

();

p () =10 ;

(), =2...24 ;

();

p (), =24 .


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: , , , .

- p p p p, , , . , p p .

p 4 40 . p p p 40, 41, 42. - p 75 p p , p p p p p p p . - p 50 51 p p p p, p p p .

p p p ppp.

p p. p , , . p . p .

- p p, , , p p ( 3MgO2SiO22H2O), . p 400... 500, 1450...1500, 106...1010 .


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4.2.


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p p , , , p (SiO2), (B2O3), (2O5), (GeO2) . , p, , p. . p ( 40%) p . (Na2O, K2O) (CaO, BaO) , (PbO) (Al2O3).


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p

p , p 96...99,9% SiO2.

1200 :

p () pp ();

(), - 0,610-6 1/;

r1016 tgd, 210-4.

Na2O K2O p pp p-p p p , -- 600...700 .


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p

p p . , p, p pp. e=3...4, tgd=10-3...10-4.

(SiO2+B2O3) (SiO2 +Al2O3) .

, , 89-5, ; 89 , 8910-7 -1; 5, , .

, , : (35...42), (46... 52), (85...92). , W, M Pt.

21, 22, 23 26. (e=3...4), , tgd, , e= (De/e)(1/DT).


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, . Li2O-Al2O3-SiO2, MgO-Al2O3-SiO2, BaO-Al2O3-SiO2, CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 . 30...95 %. 1...2 . . : .

. 148-1 : =14810-7 -1, e=7, tgd=710-3.

TiO2, FeS, B2O3, Cr2O3, V2O5, , . 38-1, 50-1 tgd, (2...45)10-4.

: - . ( l= 0,8...2,5 /). , , , - .


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- 4...7 , - . - : , 20 , , 5...50 .

. - . ( 250 ). - , .

.

(. 4.20) 5...15 , . ; n1 n2.


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( 0,631,55 ) ( ()). n 1,4585 =0,589 . () 1,9 / 0,85, 0,291 / 1,3 0,154 / 1,55 .

, ( ), . P2O5, B2O3, GeO2, TiO2, Al23, Sb2O3. 115 %. B2O3 n=1,4582 =0,589 . n. P2O5, GeO2, TiO2, Al23, Sb2O3 n=1,471,48 .


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- , (, ) . .

, (11.1)

W =Wi Wk i k, ; h =4,1310-15 .

, , .


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17 %.


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() - , . .

. , , (SiO2), (Al2O3), (TiO2), Bi2O3, MgO, BeO, (3MgO4SiO2H2O), (Mg2TiO4, MgOAl2O3), (CaTiO3, BaTiO3, SrTiO3, CaZrO3, BaZrO3, LaAl2O3). BaTiO3 SrTiO3

, . (, , ). (Al2O32SiO22H2O).

, , - : (K2OAl2O36SiO2), (Na2OAl2O36SiO2), (Ca2OAl2O36SiO2).


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:

;

-;

;

1300 o . , - . 20% .

- .


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, 5458 " ". :

- ( - e);

- ( e);

- ( ).

, e. , , () e. e. 12 e, - 7 e.


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( )

. SrTiO3, CaTiO3, LaAl2O3, CaZrO3 .

e :

I (ae,=-330010-6 -150010-6 -1). I , (, , ).

II (ae,=-75010-6...-15010-6 -1, e). II , . , , - , ).

III (ae,=-7510-6...+3310-6 -1, e). .


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( )

SrTiO3+2Bi2O33TiO2 (-- ) BaTiO3+2Bi2O33TiO2 (-- -1). . , e, (De/e)100%. e 60 o 40...+20 o +20...+85 o.

De/e .

IV (De/e=30%, e). IV , , 104 , , .

V (De/e=(10...70)%, e). .


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( )

.

VI. , . , . , (MgOAl2O3+2MgOSiO2). (BaOAl2O32SiO2).

VII. , VI. (MgOSiO2). (3MgO4SiO2H2O). . 2 .

VIII. . VIII (a-Al2O3) , . () 95...99% Al2O3 . 22 (92). , 99,7...99,9% Al2O3. , , . .


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4.3.


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. - A2+B4+O2-3, - . BaTiO3 (T=120 ), PbTiO3 (T=490 ), KNbO3 (T=435 ), LiNbO3 (T= 200 ), LiTaO3 (T= 610 ). B4+(Ti4+, Nb4+, Ta4+) (. 4.28, ).

- A2+ (Ba2+, Pb2+, K2+, Li2+), - O2-, .

B4+ , , , , -, . - - , - B4+, . 4.28, . >T B4+ - . , , - .


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, - , , (T=24 ), () (NH2CH2COOH)3H2SO4 (T=49 ), NaNO2 (T=160 ), () KH2PO4 (T=-151 ). - , , . , , . - , .


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1

. IV V. , BaTiO3 , e (, , , ).

, 1 BaTiO3+2Bi2O33TiO2 Bi2O3 (=40 ). Bi2O3 e=f(T) (. . 4.25, ). SrTiO3 SrTiO3+2Bi2O33TiO2 15% PbO (=-140 ). e=1300.

tgd 1 (40...100)10-3.


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2

- (). - . , -, , - ( -). - - - . e=f() - (. 4.30).

2 5. BaTiO3-SnTiO3, 94% BaTiO3. 6, Pb(Ti, Zr, Sn)O3. -1 BaTiO3. e=f() . 4.30, . e=e/e. e 4...50.


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. - (), D= =f(E), . 4.31, . =Dr/Ds, Dr - , Ds - . 0,95.

, , 6 ().

. - U, |E|>Ec, Ec - , +Dr, , Dr, .

3

- , , .


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4

- . . - n :

,

r ; n U/2 =10...11 ; E , /.

. - - LiNbO3, , - La(Pb, Zr, Ti)O3. , , ().

.

- -. - - , , - , - .


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5

. , , . , . , f, , 2f, 3f . . , . , , - (l=1,06 ) l/2=0,503 , . ( ) - LiNbO3, LiIO3, - Ba2NaNb5O15 (). ().


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s, H/2. - - q. - -

q=ds, /2, (4.40)

d - -, 10-12... 10-11 /.

-, . - Dl/l x, - x

x=d, (4.41)

d - , /.

:

2=P/P,

P - , - ; P -, ().


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1

. , , b-, .

Z, , . , , - Z, . , , , - . , - , - . Y, - , . - 0,05...0,1.

LiNbO3, LiTaO3, Bi12GeO20. 0,1...0,3


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2

- - CdS, ZnO, ZnS . , (CdSe), (GaAs) .

. , C6H14N8O8 (), Li2SO4H2O, .

. . , , . 2...4 / 100...150 1 . , . .


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() , - . , , (C18H21NO) (C19H23NO). . , . .

-- , , , . , , . .


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. - r=106...109 . .

. - De r 106 . , 102...104 . , , 60% +40% , .


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d (. 4.40), - , -

2dsinq=ml,

d - ; l - , ; m - (. 4.40). - - - . d . - ( ).

- - -. - , . 3...5 -40...+250 . - - .


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