Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states
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Ch. 4-2 THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND THE 50 STATES. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT. THE NATION’S OBLIGATION TO THE STATES. The National government had several obligations to the states spelled out in Article IV REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT “Guarantee to every state…a Republican Form of Government”

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Ch. 4-2 THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND THE 50 STATES

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Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

Ch. 4-2 THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT AND THE 50 STATES

AMERICAN GOVERNMENT


The nation s obligation to the states

THE NATION’S OBLIGATION TO THE STATES

  • The National government had several obligations to the states spelled out in Article IV

  • REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT

  • “Guarantee to every state…a Republican Form of Government”

  • Constitution doesn’t define “republican” and the Supreme Court has refused also.

  • Most people believe it means “representative”

  • Supreme Court says it’s a political question to be decided by politicians, not the courts.


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • Only extreme case occurred after the Civil War.

  • Congress declared that southern states did not have a “republican” form of government.

  • They had to ratify the XIIIth, XIVth, and XVth Amendments and expand laws on voting rights

  • INVASION AND INTERNAL DISORDER

  • Constitution requires that the national government protect the states from invasion

  • Today attack on one state would mean an attack on all states. It wasn’t the case in the 1780s.


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • States are responsible for keeping peace inside their borders.

  • Use of federal force to restore order is rare

  • Summer of 1967—President Lyndon Johnson ordered units of the US Army into Detroit when racial unrest could not be stopped. Johnson acted at the request of MI Governor George Romney.

  • National Government comes to the aid of states during natural disasters.

  • (Major Disaster Process p. 98)


Respect for territoral integrity

RESPECT FOR TERRITORAL INTEGRITY

  • National Government must respect the physical borders and the legal existence of each state

  • Congress must include representatives from each state according to Article V.


Admitting new states

ADMITTING NEW STATES

  • Only Congress can admit new states.

  • 1 restriction—A new state cannot be created by taking territory from other states without consent from those states in question.

  • ADMISSION PROCEDURE

  • 1) Territory asks Congress for admission

  • 2) Enabling Act-tells territory to create a proposed constitution

  • 3) State voters approve the constitution

  • 4) Congress passes “Act of Admission”

  • 5) President’s signature creates the new state


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • CONDITIONS FOR ADMISSION

  • Congress can set conditions territories must meet before becoming a states

  • UTAH—must outlaw polygamy

  • ALASKA—Congress forever prohibited them from claiming land legally held by Native Americans

  • ARIZONA—initially refused admission because their constitution provided for judicial recall. President Taft vetoed the Act of Admission until judicial recall was removed. After becoming a state, AZ amended its constitution to include judicial recall which is still in effect today. (Iowa has judicial recall also)


Cooperative federalism

COOPERATIVE FEDERALISM

  • Competition, tensions, and conflict are a regular part of American Federalism

  • There is a growing list of powers that shared by all levels of government.

  • FEDERAL GRANTS-IN-AID

  • Example of inter-governmental cooperation

  • States received grants of land for schools, roads, canals, flood control work

  • Several state universities were founded as land-grant schools

  • Morrill Act of 1862

  • Iowa State University


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • 1808—Congress gave states $200,000 to support militias

  • Money given during 1930s helped states come out the Depression

  • Today, more than 500 grant-in-aid programs exist

  • Education, mass transit, highway construction, health care, on-the-job training

  • Grants today total $275,000,000,000 (25% of state spending)

  • Critics says grants give the national government too much say in state public policy


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • REVENUE SHARING

  • 1972-1987

  • Congress gave an annual share of the huge federal tax revenue to the States, cities, counties and townships

  • $83,000,000,000 over the life of the program

  • Money couldn’t be spent on programs where discrimination was evident.

  • It was ended by the Reagan Administration as the national government tried to lower the deficit.


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • TYPES OF FEDERAL GRANTS

  • 1) Categorical grants—specific closely defined program—school lunches, airports, wastewater treatment

  • States may have to use their own money to help with a project

  • 2) Block grants—much more broadly defined grant—health care, social services, welfare

  • In the 1980s many categorical grants were combined into Block grants

  • 3) Project Grants—medical research, job training programs, employment programs


Ch 4 2 the national government and the 50 states

  • OTHER FORMS OF FEDERAL AID

  • Aid may not include money

  • Examples—FBI helps state & local police, The US Army helps train National Guard

  • “Lulu payments”—payments to states that have large federal landholdings.

  • These payments are in lieu of property taxes states can’t collect

  • STATE AID TO THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT

  • State and local elections officials conduct national elections

  • Naturalization normally takes place in state courts not federal courts.

  • State police helps the FBI catch fugitives

  • THE END


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