The War Winds Down. Nixon Moves to End the War. Henry Kissinger: special assistant for nat’l. affairs/U.S. diplomat LINKAGE – improve relations with USSR and China to persuade them to cut back aid to N. Vietnam Negotiations with N. Vietnam carried on over 4 years!. Cease-fire?
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Henry Kissinger: special assistant for nat’l. affairs/U.S. diplomat
LINKAGE – improve relations with USSR and China to
persuade them to cut back aid to N. Vietnam
Negotiations with N. Vietnam carried on over 4 years!
Nice try, but I don’t think so.
- Le Duc Tho
N. Vietnamese Negotiator
VIETNAMIZATION: the gradual withdrawal of U.S. troops while
S. Vietnam assumed more of the fighting
- Nixon increased airstrikes on N. Vietnam to ensure bargaining
power as the war came to a close
Let’s remove 25,000 troops from Vietnam…but remember, this is NOT surrender!
An American platoon massacred 200+ unarmed South
Vietnamese civilians in the hamlet of My Lai
Most were women, old men, and children
The commander who ordered
the attack went to prison…
…for 3 ½ years.
Americans at home were FURIOUS!
1970 – Nixon announces strikes in Cambodia (widening the war)
College students across the U.S. hold peaceful protests
Tragedy at Kent State University, Ohio
Nixon failed to tell Congress about the invasion into Cambodia =
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution repealed
1971 PENTAGON PAPERS leaked: revealed that many members
of the previous Johnson administration disapproved of the
revealed many of the lies told to Congress and the American public
Nixon vows to end the war – 1972 wins re-election!
January 27, 1973 – peace treaty is
signed to “end the war”, exchange
all prisoners, and for the U.S. to remove
Just as the last U.S. troops were being
removed in 1975, N. Vietnamese
launched a full scale attack on the South
All of Vietnam was united under Communism
- Saigon now called “Ho Chi Minh City”
Cost to the U.S.Cost to Vietnam
- $170+ billion - Over 1,000,000 deaths
- 58,000+ deaths
- 300,000+ wounded
- Deep psychological scarring
- Deep mistrust of the U.S. gov’t
WAR POWERS ACT: The President MUST inform Congress of troop commitment within 48 hrs.
Hawks should form a circle. Doves should form their own circle.
EVERYONE should have a notecard and a pen/pencil
•Pass the ball around your group’s circle clockwise. When the music stops, whoever is holding the ball must answer a question about the Vietnam War Era. (no student may be chosen twice consecutively…the ball will pass to his/her left)
• If one team gets it wrong, the other team gets a point.
• If both teams get it wrong, the turn is over and we start again.
• If both teams get it right,
you duel for the point!
Nixon promoted the idea of Vietnamization.
What is Vietnamization.
Extended meetings or classes to discuss social or political issues of Vietnam were called _________.
At which university did military police fire on students? How many students died as a result?
What is the difference between “Doves” and “Hawks”? Initially, which group was seen as unpatriotic and why?
Who was the U.S. diplomat/special assistant to foreign affairs?
What was his strategy called that aimed to improve relations with USSR and China to persuade them to cut back aid to N. Vietnam?
Which Democratic candidate for the 1968 election was assassinated by SirhanSirhan?
Who won the election of 1968?
Jellied gasoline that explodes on impact is called _____.
_______ is a chemical that strips foliage, leaving farmlands/forests as wasteland.
The U.S. military strategy in Vietnam was _______. This means defeating enemy sources by slowly wearing them down.
The turning point of the war was when thousands of U.S. troops and S. Vietnamese were slaughtered on the Vietnamese New Year. This battle is known as the ____________.
What did the War Powers Act do?
_____________ was the event in the Spring of 1968 that resulted in an American platoon slaughtering 200+ unarmed South Vietnamese civilians in a hamlet village