Reconstruction
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RECONSTRUCTION. The restoration of the former Confederate states to the Union. 1865-1877. What Could Have Happened: chaos and vengeance imprisonment of Confederate leaders former rebel troops wage a guerilla war slaves rage a racial war. What Did Happen: political stalemate

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Reconstruction

RECONSTRUCTION

The restoration of the former Confederate states to the Union

1865-1877


Reconstruction

  • What Could Have Happened: chaos and vengeance

  • imprisonment of Confederate leaders

  • former rebel troops wage a guerilla war

  • slaves rage a racial war

  • What Did Happen: political stalemate

  • political conflict with some violence

  • Constitutional Amendments and legislative reform

  • impeachment crisis

“It is intended to revolutionize their principles and feelings… a radical reorganization in Southern institutions, habits, and manners…or all our blood and treasure have been spent in vain.”

~ Thaddeus Stevens, Pennsylvania Representative


Questions to consider

Questions to Consider

  • What issues (both short and long term) need to be addressed?

  • What other issues do you assume exist? Pre-existing conflicts – are they addressed?

  • Who is capable of and responsible for addressing them?

  • What are the priorities of reconstruction? Who decides what the priorities are?

  • Who or what is expendable or can be sacrificed in this process?

  • How can you measure the efficacy or success of the recovery plan? Pragmatism vs. ideology

  • When does it end?


Reconstruction

Lincoln’s 10% Plan“With Malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds. “

1863 Proclamation ofAmnesty and Reconstruction

  • Oath of allegiance and acceptance of emancipation by 10% of 1860 voters

  • Excluded Confederate officials and officers

  • Excluded blacks

Attempt to undermine the Confederacy and build a southern Republican Party


Radical republicans wade davis bill

Radical RepublicansWade-Davis Bill

Passed by Congress in July of 1864, introduced by Radical Republicans, OH senator Benjamin F. Wade and MD representative Henry Winter Davis

  • majority of eligible voters required to swear oath of allegiance to the Union

  • repeal secession

  • abolish slavery

Pocket-vetoed by Lincoln


Andrew johnson

Southern Senator, remained in Congress

Anti-Confederate

Military governor of TN

Self-educated Jacksonian

Anti-agricultural elite

Supporter of emancipation

AndrewJohnson


Johnson s plan may 1865 al fl ga ms nc sc and tx still not readmitted

Johnson’s PlanMay 1865: AL, FL, GA, MS, NC, SC and TX still not readmitted


Governments of southern states status quo ante bellum

Governments of Southern Statesstatus quo ante bellum

Confederate officers and large planters assumed state offices

Former Confederate congressmen won election to Congress

BLACK CODES

Insure a landless, dependent black labor force through contracts

Legalized segregation

Banned intermarriage, jury service by blacks, testimony againstwhites

Southern law allowed marriage to blacks, ownership of property and right to testify against other blacks

Defended by Johnson


Congressional reconstruction democrats radical moderate and conservative republicans

Congressional ReconstructionDemocrats;Radical, Moderate and Conservative Republicans

1865 – extend Freedmen’s Bureau

1866 (March) – Johnson vetoed it:

the Constitution did not sanction military trials of civilians in peacetime, nor care for “indigent persons”

1866 (February) – Congress passed Civil Rights Act of 1866 guaranteeing African American citizenship

Vetoed by Johnson;

Overridden by Congress

Freedmen’s Bureau Act then passed over a presidential veto


Midterm election 1866 republican landslide

Midterm Election 1866: Republican Landslide

Radical Republican Agenda:

African American suffrage

Federal support for public schools

Confiscation of Confederate estates

Extended military occupation of the South

Three Reconstruction Acts passed over Presidential Veto

Reconstruction Act of 1867All Reconstruction governments except TN were invalidated

Remaining 10 states divided into 5 military districts

Black males and enfranchised whites elect delegation for new constitution

Grant African American suffrage and ratify 14th Amendment to be re-admitted

Temporary military occupation

No prosecution of Confederate leaders

No confiscation or redistribution of property


Impeachment crisis

Impeachment Crisis

March 1867Congress passed Tenure of Office Act which prohibited the president from removing any executive officer confirmed by the Senate without Senate approval. (Eventually the law was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.)

February 21st, 1868, Johnson fired Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, the last of several pro-Radical military officers Johnson had fired

House approved 11 articles of impeachment, 9 based on Tenure of Office and 2 others for unbecoming conduct

7 Republican Senators voted with the Democrats and Johnson was spared conviction by one vote


Reconstruction amendments

Reconstruction Amendments


Carpetbaggers and scalawags according to democrats there were three types of republicans

Carpetbaggers and ScalawagsAccording to Democrats, there were three types of Republicans

Scalawags – poor, ignorant, white southerners who supported the Republicans

Some former Whigs; mostly small farmers from the mountains (NC, BA, AL, AR); former Unionists who didn’t support the planter elite seeking their own economic improvement; no interest in black rights

Carpetbaggers :northerners who had come south for wealth and power

Former Union soldiers seeking land, factories, RR work or warmer climate; they held 1 in 3 political offices; recruited the black vote to the polls

Hordes of uneducated freedmen:

Backbone of southern Republicanism; 8 out of 10 Republican votes

Sought land, education, civil rights and political equality

Held only 1 in 5 political offices

No black governors; only 2 Senators; 6% House members were black

Black lawmakers sought equal rights; most freedmen sought land


White counterattacks

White Counterattacks

Ex-Confederates decried the “horror of Negro domination”

NC constitutional convention delegates called “Ethiopian minstrelsy…baboons, monkeys, mules…and other jackasses” by democratic newspapers

  • Political Tactics – employed after readmission

  • contested elections

  • backed dissident Republican factions

  • elected Democratic legislators

  • lured away scalawags

  • Violent Vigilantism

  • shooting, murder, rape, arson, and “severe and inhuman beating”

  • 1866 six Confederate veterans formed KKK

  • by 1868 the Klan was a domestic terrorist organization targeting black voters


Emancipation

Emancipation

Urban black population tripled as blacks left farms seeking lost family members and economic opportunity

Black Churches:worship, relief, schools, political activism

Education:Freedmen’s Bureau schools, Howard, Atlanta, Fisk Universities and Hampton Institute

By 1877, 80% of blacks remained illiterate

Sharecropping – Crop Lien Economy

40 acres and a mule

1866 Southern Homestead Act

Obstacles to Black Landownership:

Lack of capital

White opposition to selling to blacks

Preservation of a captive labor force


The abandonment of reconstruction

The Abandonment of Reconstruction

  • The Election of U.S. Grant, 1868

    • popular candidate but incompetent President

    • surrounded by fraud, bribery and corruption (“Grantism”)

  • Liberal Revolt

    • radicals and others revolted; formed Liberal Republican Party

    • Horace Greeley 1872 Candidate for President

    • civil service reform, end to “bayonet rule”, qualified leaders

  • Panic of 1873

    • Railroad speculation caused bank failure and five-year depression

    • bankrupt businesses, 3 million unemployed, labor violence

    • sound money vs. easy money and repayment of the debt

    • Specie Resumption Act, 1875 (Senator John Sherman)

    • Bland-Allison Act, 1878


End of reconstruction

End of Reconstruction

  • The Supreme Court

    • Ex Parte Milligan (1866)

    • Texas v. White (1869)

    • Slaughterhouse decision (1873)

    • U.S. v. Reese (1876)

    • U.S. v. Cruikshank (1876)

    • Invalidated the Civil Rights Act of 1875 and the KKK Act of 1871 (1883)

    • Plessy v. Ferguson (1898)

  • Redemption: the return of Democrats to power

    • Republican coalition crumbled

    • Democrats rewrote state constitutions

    • cut budgets, lowered taxes

    • eliminated social programs

    • limited rights of tenant farmers and sharecroppers

    • directed at blacks severe penalties for misdemeanors

    • restored conditions of slavery and prompted black exodus

  • Election of 1876: Hayes (Republican) vs. Tilden (Democrat)

    • Contested electoral outcome

    • Decided by electoral commission, certified by the House


Reconstruction

“When you turned us loose, you turned us loose to the sky, to the storm, to the whirlwind, and worst of all… to the wrath of our infuriated masters… The question now is, do you mean to make good to us the promised in your Constitution?”

Frederick Douglass


Don t forget

Don’t forget…

  • What issues (both short and long term) need to be addressed?

  • What other issues do you assume exist? Pre-existing conflicts – are they addressed?

  • Who is capable of and responsible for addressing them?

  • What are the priorities of reconstruction? Who decides what the priorities are?

  • Who or what is expendable or can be sacrificed in this process?

  • How can you measure the efficacy or success of the recovery plan? Pragmatism vs. ideology

  • When does it end?

Choose AT LEAST three to address in your next journal entry…


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