Environment and Sustainable Development Basics Workshop. Dr. Kazi Abdur Rouf Visiting scholar University of Toronto Associate Professor Noble International University Noble Institution for Environmental Peace (NIEP) Venue: 403-720 Spadina Avenue Toronto.
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Dr. Kazi Abdur Rouf
University of Toronto
Noble International University
Noble Institution for Environmental Peace (NIEP)
Venue: 403-720 Spadina Avenue
Dates: Tuesday, Wednesday and Saturday, July 23, 24 and 27, 2013
@ 6: pm -8: pm.
Relating to the natural world and the impact of human activity on its condition:
"acid rain may have caused major environmental damage".
The surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal, or plant lives or operates.
Environmental development: Aquaculture, chemical free agriculture, biodiversity, ecological economics, genetically modified organics green revolution, green washing, protection of soil degradation.
The continual degradation of the planet's environment is something that affects every person in every country.
"Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it Two key concepts:
The concept ofneeds, in particular the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and
The idea oflimitationsimposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs.“
Sustainable development involves devising a social and economic system, which ensures that these goals are sustained-
i.e. that real incomes rise, that educational standards increase, that the health of the nation improves, that the general quality of life is advanced (Pearce,
Makandia & Barbier, 1989).
Air pollution from North America affects air quality in Asia, and that pesticides sprayed in Argentina could harm fish stocks off the coast of Australia.
Grandparents farming practicing knowledge continuing to generation to generation.
Sustainable development suggest that meeting the needs of the future depends on how well we balance social, economic, and environmental objectives--or needs--when making decisions today.
Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels have increased by 80 per cent since 1970. Emissions today are all most 40 per cent higher than they were in 1990.
Since the year 2000 they have been growing at over 3 percent per year. World consumption of coal has increased the rate of growth in carbon dioxide emissions since the year 2000.
Extraction of iron ore, bauxite, copper and nickel is now rising faster than world GDP.
Climate change and peak oil are concern for ecological destruction and even fears of economic collapse.
According to Kyoto Protocols emissions have risen by 40 per cent since 1990.
Tim estimated 60 per cent of the world’s ecosystem services have been degraded or over –used since the mid-20th century
The world ends of cheap oil, rising commodity prices, the degradation of air, water and soil, conflicts over land use, resource use, water use, forestry and fishing rights and stabilizing the global climate.
By 2050, carbon dioxide emissions would be 80 per cent higher than they are today.
Ecocide is a massive environmental destruction that’s alarming us, other species and our planet. Ecological destruction, damage or loss of ecosystems is happening on a mass scale, every day.
Each day 150 living species become extinct,
150,000 acres of tropical rainforest are destroyed. Each day, 2 million tons of toxic waste is dumped in to our rivers and seas,
22 million tons of oil extracted and 100 million tons of greenhouse gases are released. land destroyed, water poisoned and air is polluted.
Biofuels played rising food prices, impacted to environmental degradations-rising carbon emissions, declining biodiversity, rampant deforestation, collapsing fish stocks, declining water supplies and degraded soils.
Energy growing by 45 per cent by 2030, it could hike 80 per cent in carbon emissions.
Two types of ecocides:
Human made ecocide: loss of the Amazon, nuclear war
Naturally occurring ecocide: rising sea levels, tsunamis, floods, earthquakes
1 billion people across the world are on less $1 a day-half price of a small cappuccino in Starbucks
A fifth of the world’s population earns just 2 per cent of global income. The richest 20 per cent by contrast earn 74 percent of the world’s income. Capitalism creates huge disparities.
EU unemployment rate more than 11%, 20 million people are unemployed (January 9, 2013, BSS)
More than 20% unemployment in Spain and Greece. Youth unemployment is more than 26%
Money inflection high ever before
Govts. across the world had committed staggering $7 trillion public money-more than their GDP
Prominent villain US lending house market. ‘Toxic debts’ (Tim).
Hide information from balance sheet.
The US $787 billion stimulus package, but $290 billion in tax cuts (2009)
Even during 2008 In UK, debt was growing at the rate of £1 million every 11 minutes (Jim, p. 23). The cumulative consumer debt stood at almost £ 1.5 trillion
Oil prices doubled in the year to July 2008, while food prices rose by 66 per cent, sparking civil unrest in some poorer nations
Services, household needs, industrial growth, agricultural growth, efficient use of labor
Equity, participation, empowerment, social mobility, cultural preservation
Biodiversity, natural resources, carrying capacity, ecosystem integrity, and clean air and water
Downloaded from internet
Environmental studies and measures
Agreements with communities
Protection of biodiversity
Mitigation measures against natural disasters
Multipurpose use of facilities
Services adapted to specific clienteles
Regional economic development
Reuse of insulating oil
Recovery of ecological economics
A sustainable system or process must be based on resources that will not be exhausted over a reasonable period (sometimes expressed as the 'long term')
2. A sustainable system or process must not generate unacceptable pollution externally or internally.
One of the objectives of sustainable development is to
Promote a healthy economy in order to generate the resources
To meet people’s needs and
To improve environmental quality
This in turn can further the protection of human health and the natural environment.
Key economic measures has been used to judge how the economy is performing – Examples
The level of employment
The rate of inflation
The balance of payments and
Public sector borrowing, etc.
Economics is about the efficient use of resources
Usually expressed in monetary terms
In this sense, the theories regarding sustainable use of resources can be applied to economic sustainability, except that, in monetary terms
one resource can generally substitute for another
The concept of economic sustainability is subject, on all levels, to different inputs and outputs
The economic sustainability of a farm is subject to the viability of, and markets for, an enterprise or product
The economic sustainability of a nation is subject to the whole economy on local, national and international level.
1. Gross Domestic Product
2. Structure of the economy
3. Expenditure components of GDP and personal savings
4. Consumer expenditure
7. Government borrowing and debt
8. Pollution abatement expenditure
9. Infant mortality
10. Life expectancy
An effective transport system is a necessary part of modern life
Industry and commerce depend on it
increasing use of the car has shaped today’s social and recreational lifestyles
Key sustainable development objective is to strike the right balance between the ability of transport to serve economic development and
Ability to protect the environment and sustain quality of life, both now and in the future
1. Car use and total passenger travel
2. Short journeys
3. Real changes in the cost of transport
4. Freight traffic
Key Leisure and Tourism sustainable development objectives are to maintain the quality of the environment in leisure
As well attractiveness to tourists
It also thinks for future generations to enjoy
Contributing to the quality of life of those taking part in leisure activities, and
Maximizing the economic contributing of tourism, while protecting natural resources.
The key sustainable development objectives are
To ensure supplies of energy at competitive prices
To reduce adverse impacts of energy use to acceptable levels,
To encourage consumers to meet their needs with less energy input through improved energy efficiency.
Indicators relevant to these objectives concern
Depletion of fossil fuel reserves,
Capacity of nuclear and renewable energy sources,
Energy usage by sector, and
Depletion of fossil fuels
Capacity of nuclear and renewable fuels
Primary and final energy consumption
Energy consumption and output
Industrial and commercial sector consumption
Road transport energy use
Residential energy use
Fuel prices in real terms
Land use sustainable development is to balance the competing demands for the finite quantity of land available.
Here main issues are
To minimize the loss of rural land to development
To maintain the vitality and viability of town centers with people living close to where they work
Indicators relevant to these issues are
Area of land covered by urban development, household numbers
Re-use of urban land for development
Reclamation (wetlands)of derelict land (unused lands)
Amount of land used to build new roads
Growth in out of town shopping centers and
Green spaces in urban areas for recreation.
1. Land covered by urban development
2. Household numbers
3. Re-use of land in urban uses for development
4. Stock and reclamation of derelict land
5. Road building
6. Out-of-town retail floor space
7. Regular journeys
8. Regular expenditure
9. Green spaces in urban areas
The key issues for sustainable development are
To ensure that adequate water resources are available to meet consumers' needs
To meet the demand for water from households, agriculture and industry , but sustaining the aquatic environment, and
To improve the efficiency of water use.
The key sustainable development issue for forestry is
To manage forests in a way that sustains their environmental qualities and
Their productive potential.
1. Forest cover
2. Timber production
3. Ancient semi-natural woodland
4. Tree health
5. Forest management
Fishing has a major impact on the living resources of the sea and most of the fish stocks in the waters are currently over-exploited.
The key issue for sustainability is
To prevent over-exploitation of fish stocks
To balance fishing effort against the natural ability of fish stocks to regenerate.
Indicators relevant to this issue are fish stocks and catches in waters.
1. Fish stocks
2. Minimum Biological Acceptable Level (MBAL)
3. Fish catches
Climate Change key sustainable development objective is
To limit emissions of greenhouse gases which may contribute to global warming and climate change.
Indicators of relevance are
Greenhouse gas radiative
Global temperature change, and
Emissions of greenhouse gases.
1. Global greenhouse gas radiative forcing rate
2. Global temperature change
3. Emissions of greenhouse gases
4. Power station emissions of carbon dioxide
The key sustainable development objective is
To restrict atmospheric emissions of substances which cause stratospheric ozone depletion.
Indicators of relevance are:
Chlorine loading in the atmosphere,
Ozone depletion over the atmosphere
Consumption and emissions of ozone-depleters in Europe.
1. Calculated chlorine loading
2. Measured ozone depletion
3. Emissions of ozone depleting substances
4. Chlorofluorocarbon(CFCs ) consumption: used as refrigerants, aerosol propellants, solvents, and in foam: some cause a breakdown of ozone
The key sustainable development issues are :
To limit acid emissions and ensure appropriate land management practices
Indicators of relevance are
Exceedences of critical loads for acidity
Emissions of acidifying pollutants from major sources, and expenditure on pollution abatement (reduce, moderation).
1. Exceedences of provisional critical loads for acidity
2. Power station emissions of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides
3. Road transport emissions of nitrogen oxides
The key sustainable development objective is
To control air pollution in order to reduce the risks of adverse effects on natural ecosystems, human health and quality of life.
Key issues are:
To reduce pollutant emissions
To improve local air quality, especially in urban areas, and
To control photochemical pollution.
Indicators to illustrate these issues are:
Concentrations of pollutants at selected sites
Emissions of pollutants, and
Expenditure on pollution abatement (reduction, moderation).
1. Ozone concentrations
2. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations
3. Particulate matter concentrations
4. Volatile organic compound emissions
5. Carbon monoxide emissions
6. Black smoke emissions
7. Lead emissions
8. Expenditure on air pollution abatement
The key sustainable development objectives are to sustain and improve water quality and the aquatic environment
Other objectives included under these broad aims are:
To manage the discharge of waste water
To control pollution
To ensure adequate water resources of sufficient quality are available for abstraction for treatment as drinking water, and
To facilitate the recreational use of water where appropriate.
Indicators relevant to these objectives include
Chemical and biological measures of freshwater quality
Concentrations of important pollutants
Water pollution incidents, and expenditure on water supply and treatment.
Acidification of freshwater (use pesticide for destroying weeds)
1. River quality - chemical and biological
2. Nitrates in rivers and groundwater
3. Phosphorous in rivers
4. Pesticides in rivers and groundwater
5. Pollution incidents
6. Pollution prevention and control
7. Expenditure on water abstraction, treatment and distribution
8. Expenditure on sewage treatment
The key sustainable development issue for the coastal and marine environment is to prevent pollution from human activities especially those which result in the discharge of effluent reaching the sea via rivers, estuaries and directly from the coast.
This is to be achieved by legally prohibit materials containing substances which are toxic, persistent and liable to bioaccumulation.
1. Estuarial water quality
2. Concentrations of key pollutants
3. Contaminants in fish
4. Bathing water quality
5. Inputs of contaminants
6. Oil spills and operational discharges
The key sustainable development objectives for wildlife are to conserve as far as reasonably possible the wide variety of wildlife species and habitats in the community, and to ensure that commercially exploited species are managed in a sustainable way.
1. Native species at risk
2. Breeding birds
3. Plant diversity in semi-improved grassland
4. Area of chalk grassland
5. Plant diversity in hedgerows
6. Habitat fragmentation
7. Lakes and ponds
8. Plant diversity
9. Mammal populations
A key sustainable development issue is to balance the protection of the countryside's landscape and habitats of value for wildlife with the maintenance of an efficient supply of good quality food and other products.
The indicators relevant to this objective are
Changes in rural land cover, in particular for agricultural land which is the dominant cover,
Extent of designated and protected areas, damage to designated and protected areas
Agricultural productivity, nitrogen and pesticide inputs,
Loss of linear landscape features, and agri-environment land management schemes.
1. Rural land cover
2. Designated and protected areas
3. Damage to designated and protected areas
4. Agricultural productivity
5. Nitrogen usage
6. Pesticide usage
7. Length of landscape linear features
8. Environmentally managed land
A key objective of sustainable development is to protect soil as a limited resource for the production of food and other products, and as an ecosystem for vital organisms.
The chosen indicators relevant to this objective are
Soil quality - concentrations of organic matter, acidity and concentrations of nutrients (phosphorus and potassium) in agricultural top soils; and
Concentrations of heavy metals in agricultural top soils.
1. Soil quality
2. Heavy metals in top soils
Wide range of commercially important minerals are present and are worked in different countries
Geological extent of many of these mineral resources is large, but increasingly there are limitations on sources of supply which are free from environmental constraints.
The key sustainable development objectives are to conserve minerals as far as possible while ensuring an adequate supply, to minimize waste production and to encourage efficient use of materials, to minimize environmental damage from minerals extraction and
To protect designated areas from development.
Indicators relevant to these objectives are
Land worked for minerals and restored, and aggregates extracted from marine dredging
Consumption of fossil fuels
1. Green economic aggregates output
2. Aggregates from wastes
3. Mineral workings on land
4. Land covered by restoration/aftercare conditions
5. Reclamation of mineral workings
The key sustainable development objectives for waste and waste management are
To minimize the amount of waste which is produced, to make best use of the waste which is produced and to minimize pollution from waste
Reduction, re-use, recovery (materials recycling, composting, energy recovery) and disposal
Objectives of waste management policy are to move waste management is retaining the best practical environmental option, particularly in respect of hazardous waste.
1. Household waste
2. Industrial and commercial waste
3. Special waste
4. Household waste recycling and composting
5. Materials recycling
6. Energy from waste
7. Waste going to landfill
Key objectives for sustainable development are to ensure radioactive wastes are not unnecessarily created
To ensure radioactive wastes are managed and treated in a manner which does not lead to excessive discharges or radiation doses to members of the population, and
To ensure that wastes are safely disposed of at appropriate times and in appropriate ways.
The indicators relevant to these objectives are
Average radiation dose to people
Discharges from nuclear installations relative to nuclear power generation and
Radioactive waste arising and disposal.
1. Radiation exposure
2. Discharges from nuclear installations and nuclear power generation
3. Radioactive waste arising and disposal
A set of twenty-eight toxic substances have been identified by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA)
For example chemicals like polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCB5), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated pesticides, and mercury are harmful for human health and other species
Many synthetic chemicals are developed and used for industrial and agricultural applications that are harmful to environment too.
O Environmental studies and measures
O Agreements with communities
O Energy efficiency
O Protection of biodiversity
O Mitigation measures
O Multipurpose use of facilities
O Services adapted to specific clienteles
O Regional economic spinoffs
O Partnering arrangements
O Reuse of insulating oil
O Recovery of poles
The air, water, minerals, organisms, and
All other external factors surrounding and affecting a given organism at any time.
Diagram downloaded from Internet
Ecological economics is a trans-disciplinary field. It's not a sub discipline of economics. Environmental economics is a sub discipline of economics, so it's applying standard economic thinking to the environment.
Ecological Economics addresses the relationships between ecosystems and economic systems.
There are at least 6 major themes of EE:
BROADER NOTIONS OF VALUE (not only market value),
Clayton, A. and Radcliffe, N. (1996) Sustainability: A Systems Approach, Earthscan, London
Simon Bell and Stephen Morse (2008). Sustainability Indicators-Measuring the Immeasurable? EarthScan Publishing, London.
Next Sessions Environment
July 24 and 27
@6:00 pm- 8:00 pm
403-720 Spadina Avenue.
Thank You Environment