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Safety. DTU Branddag. 04/2011. By Head of Dept. Master in Fire Safety Finn B. Steffensen. Knowledgeable User. Round-robin study of fire modelling Dalmarnock Fire Tests [ Uni. of Edinb. et al. ] A posteriori modelling (8xFDS+2xCFAST) Common test description

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Safety

DTU Branddag

04/2011

By Head of Dept. Master in Fire Safety Finn B. Steffensen

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Knowledgeable user
Knowledgeable User

  • Round-robin study of fire modelling

    • Dalmarnock Fire Tests [Uni. of Edinb. et al.]

    • A posteriori modelling (8xFDS+2xCFAST)

    • Common test description

    • HRR of initial fire was provided

  • Pre-flashover well-ventilated round-robin studies

-30%Texp

+500%Texp

[Rein et al. (2009), Fire Safety Journal 44, pp. 590-602]

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Forretningsstrategi round niras

2*Sd

mean

Sol 1

Sol 2

Sol 3

ForretningsstrategiRound-NIRAS

F

‘Tilfældigt’

Overvejet

Vel-overvejet

$

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Cost benefit problemer generelt
Cost-benefitProblemer generelt

F

Omkostning til analyse

Besparelse ved yderligere analyse

$

Optimum

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Cost benefit brand analyser
Cost-benefit Brand analyser

F

Omkostning til yderligere analyse

Besparelse ved yderligere analyse

$

Optimum

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Funktionsbaserede brandkrav evaluering
Funktionsbaserede brandkravEvaluering

  • EBST 

  • Arkitekter 

  • Brandrådgiver 

  • Andre 

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Comparative Evaluation of Prescriptive, Performance based and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office BuildingMaria Boe Hede, Master Thesis, March 2011

Comparative = deemed to succeed

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Areal = 2100 m2

Etagehøjde = 3,2 m

Personlast 400 per

Brandinstallation (Anv. 1/3):

Automatisk sprinkleranlæg

Automatisk varslingsanlæg

7


Brandteknisk dimensionering and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office BuildingInformation om brandteknisk dimensionering

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8


Brandteknisk dimensionering and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Buildingresultat

Sprinklersystem virker

Sprinklersystem virker

ikke

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9


Designv rdier sandsynlig v rst samtidig
Designværdier and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office BuildingSandsynlig værst (samtidig)

  • Personbelastning (max)

  • Personfordeling (værst)

  • Brandplacering (værst)

  • Brandtype (soot-yield) (sandsynlig værst)

  • Brandtilvækst (forventet værst)

  • Brandstørrelse (forventet værst)

  • Detection and warning

  • Reaction and decision

  • Travelling time, flugtvejsdefinition (trapper) og flugtvejspræferencer (30/70)

  • No first aid intervention

  • Virkemåde af brandtekniske foranstaltninger (control mode sprinkler (!!?), afstand fra brand til detektor og/eller sprinkler osv.)

  • Svigt af brandteknisk foranstaltning

  • ESL/FSL > 1, 1,3, 2,0 !!!!?

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Risikoanalyser and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

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11


I:\inf\pr-toolbox\overheads\Firmapresentation_nov2005.ppt and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

Reaction and decision time

12


Risikoanalyse and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

Resultat (50.000 simuleringer)

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13


Commissioning operation and management
Commissioning, Operation and Management and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Operation:

    • Design compliance should be ensured throughout the building lifetime

      • System mean life time, L:

      • Regular verification of FP-SOM by testing

[Klote (2002)] - Other: 1E-5/hr

[Klote (2002)] - Fan: 1E-6/hr

L=23 months

L=9 months

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High rack storage and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building400 mio EUR Storage

New storage

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Danish Furs and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office BuildingQRA-analysis – Traditional Fire Strategy

∑ loss/year = 3 mio. EUR

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Danish Furs and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office BuildingQRA-analysis – Alternative Fire Strategy

∑ loss/year = 1 mio. EUR

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Methodology of use

[ and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office BuildingEN 12101-5]:

=4,000 kW

Methodology of Use

  • Design fire uncertainty – e.g. car fire

    • DK: Same building owner may be met with different design fires

  • Premovement time

    • Fixed: ~30 s => ~300 s

    • Distribution of :

DK: Great variation within group of FSEs and within group of AHJs

[Okamoto et al. (2009), Fire Safety Journal 44, pp. 301-310]

Npers/Ntotal

1.0

trd

Shopping

Office

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Mathematical model
Mathematical Model and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Fire modelling in PB design

    • A priori modelling

    • Leads to unclear risk levels

  • PBFC system must control math. assumptions

45 kg/s

75 kg/s

60 kg/s

  • 4. diff. math. models

  • Identical design fire

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Methodology of use1
Methodology of Use and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Buoyancy-driven vent modelling

Vena contracta

No VC

No VC

Vena contracta

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Full scale testing and verification
Full-Scale Testing and Verification and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Capacity of spiral stairs

    • AROS Museum of Modern Art, Aarhus (DK)

    • Hand rail in 1/3 point to improve capacity

[Olafur Eliasson]

Handrail

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Improved

Existing


Full scale testing and verification1
Full-Scale Testing and Verification and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Full-scale test

    • 3 rep. tests with 200 pers. in each staircase

    • Findings

Improved

Existing

Up 50%

Compares to 0.7 m/s

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Fire protection and safety the next 25 years
Fire Protection and Safety: and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Buildingthe next 25 years

  • Demographics and Urban Growth Patterns

  • 1. Densification in population

  • 2. Changes in transportation modes

  • 3. Growing aged and disabled population

  • 4. Declining work force

  • 5. Changing cultural impacts on fire safety and fire safety education

  • 6. Increased population living alone

  • 7. Focus on renovation/repair/reuse/maintenance

  • Materials and Technology

  • 8. Smart building materials

  • 9. Changes in hazards of building contents – materials and configurations

  • 10. Increased power demands

  • 11. New fire fighting technologies – sensors, robotics, information and decision making technologies

  • Environment, Energy, Sustainability

  • 12. Frequency of natural disasters – fires and floods

  • 13. Green building design

  • 14. Aging fire safety and electrical systems

  • 15. Alternative fuels and energy sources

  • 16. Declining water resources in populated areas

  • 17. Hazardous materials regulation impact on fire protection materials

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Future work
Future work and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Udfordringer:

  • Nybyg 130 mia kr

  • Ombyg 70 mia kr.

  • Acceptkriterier

  • Risikoacceptkurver

  • Forsikringsselskaber

  • Designbrande

  • Materialer

  • High rise Buildings

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Eksamensprojekter
Eksamensprojekter and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

  • Evakueringsforsøg med grise !!!??

  • Brandsikring af aerosoloplag

  • Udvendig brandspredning, med facadebeklædning af EPS

  • mmm

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End of presentation
End of Presentation and Risk based Fire Safety in an Office Building

THANK YOU!

[NRCC/MTQ: Full-scale fire test, Ville-Marie Tunnel, Montreal (CA)]

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