Reading evaluating arguments
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Reading & Evaluating Arguments. Be prepared to take Cornell Notes on your own sheet of paper. Each table also needs a TEAM ANSWER SHEET for group discussion questions. Be prepared to discuss answers to group discussion questions with the class.

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Reading & Evaluating Arguments

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Reading evaluating arguments

Reading & Evaluating Arguments

  • Be prepared to take Cornell Notes on your own sheet of paper.

  • Each table also needs a TEAM ANSWER SHEET for group discussion questions.

  • Be prepared to discuss answers to group discussion questions with the class.

  • Notes and answers will be submitted for review at the end of the hour.


Reading evaluating arguments1

Reading & Evaluating Arguments

  • An ARGUMENT presents logical reasons and evidence to support a viewpoint or claim

    • ISSUE - problem or controversy about which people disagree

    • CLAIM - the position on the issue

    • SUPPORT – explanation as to why the claim is reasonable and acceptable

    • REFUTATION - opposing viewpoints or counterarguments


Types of support

Types of Support

  • REASON– a general statement that supports a claim.

  • EVIDENCE – facts, statistics, experiences, comparisons, and examples that show why the claim is valid.

  • EMOTIONAL APPEALS – ideas that are targeted toward needs or values that readers are likely to care about.


Group discussion malcolm gladwell s argument

GROUP DISCUSSION: Malcolm Gladwell’s Argument

  • What is the ISSUE(s) discussed in Chapter 1 OR Chapter 2 of The Outliers?

  • What CLAIM(s) does Gladwell make?

  • What reasons, evidence, and/or appeal does Gladwell provide to SUPPORT his claim(s)?

  • What REFUTATION(s) does Gladwell make?

  • Is Gladwell’s ARGUMENT convincing? Why or why not?


Group discussion malcolm gladwell s argument1

GROUP DISCUSSION: Malcolm Gladwell’s Argument

  • What is the ISSUE(s) discussed in Chapter 2 of The Outliers?

  • What is Gladwell’s CLAIM(s)?

  • What logical reasons and evidence does Gladwell provide to SUPPORT his claim?

  • What REFUTATION(s) does Gladwell make?

  • Is Gladwell’s ARGUMENT convincing? Why or why not?


Types of claims

Types of Claims

  • Claim of FACT – statement that can be proven or verified by observation or research

  • Example: Within ten years, destruction of rain forests will cause hundreds of plant and animal species to become extinct.

  • GROUP DISCUSSION: What claims of fact does Gladwell make in Chapters 1 & 2?


Types of claims1

Types of Claims

  • Claim of VALUE – states that one thing or idea is better or more desirable than another.

  • Example: Requiring community service in high school will produce more community-aware graduates.

  • GROUP DISCUSSION: What claims of value does Gladwell make in Chapters 1 & 2?


Types of claims2

Types of Claims

  • Claim of POLICY – suggests what should or ought to be done to solve a problem.

  • To reduce school violence, more gun and metal detectors should be installed in public schools.

  • GROUP DISCUSSION: What claims of policy does Gladwell make in Chapters 1 & 2?


Inductive and deductive arguments

Inductive and Deductive Arguments

  • INDUCTIVE - reaches a general conclusion from observed specifics (specific  general).

  • By observing the performance of a large number of athletes, you could conclude that athletes possess physical stamina.

  • GROUP DISCUSSION: What inductive reasoning does Gladwell use in Chapter 1? Chapter 2?


Inductive and deductive arguments1

Inductive and Deductive Arguments

  • DEDUCTIVE - begins with a major premise and moves toward a more specific statement or minor premise (general  specific).

  • Athletes possess physical stamina. Because Anthony is an athlete, he must possess physical stamina.

  • GROUP DISCUSSION: What deductive reasoning does Gladwell use in Chapter 1? Chapter 2?


Chapters 3 4 5 annotation focus

Chapters 3, 4, & 5 Annotation Focus

  • Claims of FACT

  • Claims of VALUE

  • Claims of POLICY

  • INDUCTIVE Reasoning

  • DEDUCTIVE Reasoning

Must identify AND discuss in 1-2 sentences in margin or no credit!


Chapters 3 4 5 annotation focus1

Chapters 3, 4, & 5 Annotation Focus

  • Evidence – Identify types of evidence in Chapters 3 & 4 and note whether or not it is sufficient to support the claim and why.

  • Personal Experience – Identify and explain how it reveals Gladwell’s bias.

  • Examples – Identify and note whether or not they are used alone or in conjunction with other examples. Explain how using examples in conjunction strengthens the argument.


Chapters 3 4 5 annotation focus2

Chapters 3, 4, & 5 Annotation Focus

  • Statistics – Identify and note whether they are misused, manipulated, or misinterpreted and explain how so.

  • Comparisons and Analogies – Identify and discuss how reliable they are (i.e., how closely they correspond to the situation).

  • Relevancy and Sufficiency of Evidence – Note in the margin whether or not the kind of evidence used is relevant and/or sufficient.


Chapters 3 4 5 annotation focus3

Chapters 3, 4, & 5 Annotation Focus

  • Definition of Terms – Identify new, technical, or special terms and note whether or not Gladwell sufficiently defines and/or explains them.

  • Cause-Effect Relationships – Identify and discuss effects on the intended audience.

  • Implied or Stated Value System – Note when Gladwell’s values seem to be consistent (or inconsistent) with yours.


Chapters 3 4 5 annotation focus4

Chapters 3, 4, & 5 Annotation Focus

  • Recognizing and Refuting Opposing Viewpoints

    • Feel free to question the accuracy, relevancy, or sufficiency of Gladwell’s evidence. Note questions/challenges in the margins.

    • Note whether or not Gladwell addresses opposing viewpoints clearly and fairly.

    • Note whether or not Gladwell refutes opposing viewpoints with logic and relevant evidence.


Strategies for evaluating arguments

Strategies for Evaluating Arguments

  • Unfair Emotional Appeals

    • Emotionally Charged or Biased Language

    • False Authority

      • athletes endorsing underwear

      • movie stars selling shampoo

    • Association

      • a car being named a Cougar to remind you of a sleek animal

      • a cigarette advertisement featuring a scenic waterfall


Strategies for evaluating arguments1

Strategies for Evaluating Arguments

  • Unfair Emotional Appeals

    • Appeal to “Common Folk”

      • an ad showing a product being used in an average household

      • a politician suggesting he is like everyone else

    • Ad Hominem - attack on the person rather than his/her viewpoint

    • “Join the Crowd” Appeal or Bandwagon


What emotional appeal is being used

What emotional appeal is being used?

  • Come early so you won’t have to stand in line – because everyone knows you can make a deal with Dave and save.

  • As a test pilot, Susan Gibbs knows performance. “That’s why I drive a Mustang,” she says.

  • Olson’s pizzas are lower in fat and calories. Other pizza makers don’t care about your health.


Emotional appeals continued

Emotional appeals continued…

  • “We can work magic with your children,” says Eileen of Eileen’s Day Care. “Call upon us, and your children will be happy you did.”

  • Liberty Bell Airlines flies anywhere in this great land, from sea to shining sea.

  • As a young man, Candidate Alan Wilson learned what it means to work hard by spending long hours lifting boxes and sweeping floors working in a department store.


Reading evaluating arguments

Errors in Logical Reasoningcommonly called logical fallaciesinvalidate the argument or render argument flawed

  • Circular Reasoning/Begging the Question

    • “Female police officers should not be sent to crime scenes because apprehending criminals is a man’s job.”

  • Hasty Generalization - conclusion derived from insufficient evidence

    • “Because one apple is sour, all of them in the bowl must be sour.”


Errors in logical reasoning

Errors in Logical Reasoning

  • Non Sequitur (“It Does Not Follow”)

    • “Because my doctor is young, I’m sure she’ll be a good doctor.”

  • False Cause

    • “Because I opened the umbrella when I tripped on the sidewalk, the umbrella must have caused me to trip.”

  • Either-Or Fallacy

    • “Because of the violence, TV must be either allowed or banned.”


For each argument

For Each Argument:

  • Identify the claim.

  • Outline the reasons to support the claim.

  • What types of evidence are used?

  • Evaluate the adequacy and sufficiency of the evidence.

  • What emotional appeals are used?

  • Does the author recognize or refute counter arguments?


Comparing the arguments

Comparing the Arguments:

  • Compare the types of evidence used.

  • Which argument did you find more convincing? Why?

  • What further information would be useful in assessing the issue?


Read the articles on education and complete the activities following each selection

Read the articles on education and complete the activities following each selection.

“School Boards Doing Little to Close Gap Between Whites, Minorities”

“School Vouchers: The Wrong Choice for Public Education”


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