Chapter 15 The Nation Breaking Apart 1846-1861. Section 1 - Growing Tensions Between North and South Find Out: How the abolitionist movement heightened tensions between the North and South The controversies over slavery in the territories
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The Nation Breaking Apart
Section 1 - Growing Tensions Between North and South
James Hopkinson's Plantation. Planting sweet potatoes.
Library of Congress
Antislavery and racism
David Wilmot was a representative from the state of Pennsylvania. He proposed that slavery should not be allowed in any territory won in the War with Mexico. Angry slaveholders protested that the government had no right to tell them what to do with their own property since slaves were considered property. The measure passed the House but failed in the Senate. – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
The Wilmot Proviso
The Wilmot Proviso
Controversy over Territories
The United States Senate, A.D. 1850 – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay, known as the Great Compromiser for coming up with the Missouri Compromise of 1820. Years and years in the Senate can surely age a man!
Henry Clay – Library of Congress
Prints and Photographs
Compromise of 1850 cont.
1850 for the good
of the country.
helped his friend
Henry Clay by
pushing the bill
Notes and images from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
HARRIET TUBMAN 1820-1913
B. Summarizing Use the chart below to take note on the Compromise of 1850.
Section 2 - The Crisis Deepens
Effects of the Fugitive Slave Law – Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
The Fugitive Slave Act
What do you think happened?
The Fugitive Slave Act cont.
slaves were considered property
a.Obey law and support slavery
b.Disobey law and oppose slavery
Question: How could a northerner break the law under the Fugitive Slave Act?
In 1852, Harriet Beecher Stowe published her influential novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin
The book stressed the moralevil ofslavery
Southerners protested that it did not portray slavery accurately
Abolitionist protests increased
Instant best seller sold 500,000 by 1857
Eliza Pursued by Bloodhounds
from the Library of Congress Prints
After Stephen Douglas worked to pass the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, Kansas would vote to decide on whether slavery would be legal or outlawed
This contradicted the 36° 30” of the Missouri Compromise
The Kansas-Nebraska Act
Finally, after years of fighting, Kansas is admitted as a free state in 1861
More Bleeding Kansas
Ruins of the Free-State Hotel in Lawrence in 1856 as sketched in Sara T. D. Robinson's book, Kansas; Its Interior and Exterior Life. The hotel was destroyed by Proslavery men led by Sheriff Samuel J. Jones, who were acting without authorization. Both the New England Emigrant Aid Company and its assignee, the University of Kansas, several times tried unsuccessfully to collect damages from the federal government.
Violence in Congress
Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a blistering speech in the Senate attacking the spread of slavery into Kansas. In his speech he attacked fellow Senators Douglas of Illinois and Butler of South Carolina. It took Sumner three years to regain his health enough to return to the Senate.
Hon. Charles Sumner - the great senator and statesman, the champion of civil and political equality - born January 6th 1811, died March 11th 1874 from Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
Preston Brooks was the nephew of A.P. Butler who was singled out by Sumner in his speech. Brooks was never charged with a crime but resigned his seat in the House after surviving a censure vote. He was soon reelected to fill his own vacancy.
John Brown believed that God commanded him to rid slavery from the United States. After leading raids in Kansas with 5 of his sons, he moved to Virginia to plan an attack that would free all the slaves. Brown was wounded and captured and later hanged for treason on December 2, 1859 for his role in trying to capture the American fort at Harpers Ferry - from
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs.
John Brown, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing slightly right
California is admitted as
a free state which
changed the balance
between the number of slave and free states
The Fugitive Slave Act
brought the issue of slavery to Northerners. They resented being involved in the slavery issue.
Residents in western
territories will decide by vote
whether to allow slavery or not
B. Evaluating Use the chart below to evaluate the role of these people and ideas in raising tensions over the issue of slavery in the1850’s.
Section 3 - Slavery Dominates
Know-Nothing members answered questions by saying, “I know Nothing”
Another party that emerged in the mid-19th century was the Free-Soilers
They were northerners who opposed slavery in the territories
Free-Soilers objections to slavery were based on economics not moral objection to slavery
They believed slavery drove down wages for white workers
Republicans won all but 3 presidential elections from 1860-1932
"A Paradox“ from the
Library of Congress
The Republicans and
Democrats fight over
the foreign vote
The Republican Party Forms
Campaign poster from 1856 election
from Library of Congress Prints and
Song for the people from
the Library of Congress
The Election of 1856
DRED SCOTT LOST HIS CHANCE AT FREEDOM – From Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
Dred Scott and his wife sued for their
freedom because they had lived for
9 years in free territory. The decision had
more to do with property rights than
whether they deserved their freedom.
From Library of Congress Prints
Lincoln Douglas debate Du Page County Centennial, August 27th
From the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs
While politicians debated the slavery issue, John Brown plotted a major slave revolt
On October 16, 1859, he led a band of 21 men, black and white, into Harpers Ferry, Virginia
He hoped to seize a large federal arsenal, but troops put down the rebellion
Brown was tried and executed
John Brown Attacks Harpers Ferry
A. Analyzing Points of ViewUse the chart below to take notes on people’s views of the topics listed.
B. Finding Main IdeasUse the chart below to note something important you learned about each of the
Section 4 - Lincoln’s Election and Southern Secession
Political Parties Splinter
Baltimore in June of 1860
Democrats nominated Douglas
Breckinridge of Kentucky (current VP)
and supporter of slavery
which formed to preserve Union
Washington, D.C. Negro boys admiring the Lincoln Memorial –from Library of Congress .
1860 ELECTION RESULTS
dissolved their ties with the USA
Secession Exploded from Library of Congress
Prints and Photographs.
Efforts to Compromise Fail
A. CategorizingUse the chart below to take notes on the 1860’s presidential election.
B. Analyzing Points of ViewUse the chart below to take notes on the views of each group regarding