Download
1 / 15

Describe the four characteristics common to all organizations. Explain the difference between closed and open systems, a - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 3409 Views
  • Uploaded on

Designing Effective Organizations. Learning Objectives. Describe the four characteristics common to all organizations. Explain the difference between closed and open systems, and contrast the military/mechanical, biological, and cognitive systems metaphors for organizations.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Describe the four characteristics common to all organizations. Explain the difference between closed and open systems, a' - carl


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Slide2 l.jpg

Designing Effective

Organizations

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the four characteristics common to all organizations.

  • Explain the difference between closed and open systems, and contrast the military/mechanical, biological, and cognitive systems metaphors for organizations.

  • Describe the four generic organizational effectiveness criteria.

  • Explain what the contingency approach to organizational design involves.

  • Discuss Burns and Stalker’s findings regarding mechanistic and organic organizations.

  • Describe new-style and old-style organizations, and list the keys to managing geographically-dispersed employees in virtual organizations.

Chapter Fifteen


Slide3 l.jpg

What is an Organization?

15-1

  • Organization: system of consciously coordinated activities of two or more people.

  • Unity of command principle: each employee should report to a single manager.

  • Organization chart: boxes-and-lines illustration showing chain of formal authority and division of labor.

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide4 l.jpg

Sample Organization Chart for a Hospital

15-2 Figure 15-1

Board of Directors

StrategicPlanningAdvisor

LegalCounsel

Chief ExecutiveOfficer

Cost-ContainmentStaff

President

ExecutiveAdministrativeDirector

ExecutiveMedicalDirector

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide5 l.jpg

Sample Organization Chart for a

Hospital (Cont.)

15-3 Figure 15-1

ExecutiveAdministrativeStaff

ExecutiveMedicalDirector

Dir.OfHumanResources

Dir.OfPatient& PublicRelations

Dir.OfNutrition& FoodServices

Dir.X-Ray &LabServices

Dir.OfOut-PatientServices

ChiefPhysician

Dir.OfAdmissions

Dir.OfAccounting

Dir.OfSurgery

Dir.OfPharmacy

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide6 l.jpg

Span of Control

15-4

  • Span of control: the number of people reporting directly to a given manager.

  • Staff personnel: provide research, advice, and recommendations to line managers.

  • Line Managers: have authority to make organizational decisions.

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide7 l.jpg

Closed System:“A self-sufficient entity, closed to the surrounding environment.” (For example, a battery-powered clock.)

Open system:“Depends on constant interaction with the surrounding environment for survival.” (For example, the human body.)

Needed: Open-System Thinking

15-5

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide8 l.jpg

Organizations as Military/Mechanical

Bureaucracies

15-6

  • Bureaucracy: Max Weber’s idea of the most rationally efficient form of organization.

  • Weber’s Bureaucracy: four factors should make bureaucracies the epitome of efficiency

    • Division of labor

    • A hierarchy of authority

    • A framework of rules

    • Administrative personality

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide9 l.jpg

The Organization as an Open System:

The Biological Metaphor

15-7 Figure 15-2

Goals and Values Subsystem

Technical Subsystems

Inputs

Outputs

Managerial Subsystem

Psychological Subsystem

Structural Subsystem

Feedback

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide10 l.jpg

Generic Effectiveness Criteria

15-8

  • “No single approach to the evaluation of effectiveness is appropriate to all circumstances or for all organization types.”

    • Goal accomplishment

    • Resource acquisition

    • Internal processes

    • Strategic constituencies satisfaction

      • Strategic constituency: any group of people with a stake in the organization’s operation or success.

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide11 l.jpg

Goal Accomplishment

Resource Acquisition

Internal Processes

Strategic Constituencies Satisfaction

Four Dimensions of Organizational

Effectiveness

15-9 Figure 15-3

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide12 l.jpg

The Contingency Approach to Designing

Organizations

15-10

  • Contingency approach to organization design: creating an effective organization-environment fit.

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide13 l.jpg

Mechanistic versus Organic

Organizations

15-11

  • Mechanistic organizations: “Rigid bureaucracies with strict rules, narrowly defined tasks, and top-down communication.” (Tend toward centralized decision-making.)

  • Organic organizations:“Flexible networks of multitalented individuals who perform a variety of tasks.” (Tend toward decentralized decision making.)

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide14 l.jpg

New

Old

Dynamics learning

Stable

Information rich

Information is scarce

Global

Local

Small and large

Large

Product/customer oriented

Functional

Skills oriented

Job oriented

Team oriented

Individual oriented

Involvement oriented

Command/control oriented

Lateral/networked

Hierarchical

Customer oriented

Job requirements oriented

New-Style versus Old-Style

Organizations

15-12 Table 15-1

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


Slide15 l.jpg

Skills & Best Practices: How to Manage

Globally-Dispersed Employees

15-13

  • The three keys are: sharing knowledge, building trust, and maintaining connectedness

  • Other steps include:

    • Hire carefully

    • Communicate regularly

    • Practice “management by walking around”

    • Conduct regular audits

    • Use technology as a tool, not a weapon

    • Achieve a workable balance between online and live training

© 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

© 2005 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

McGraw-Hill

McGraw-Hill/Irwin


ad