The Relation between Agriculture and Climate Change:
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Oscar Rodas Asociación Guyra Paraguay (NGO) Paraguay, South América [email protected] PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Relation between Agriculture and Climate Change: Reducing the Vulnerability of the Agriculture Sector. Oscar Rodas Asociación Guyra Paraguay (NGO) Paraguay, South América [email protected] Global emissions of GHG related to human activities. Deforestation (land use changes)

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Oscar Rodas Asociación Guyra Paraguay (NGO) Paraguay, South América [email protected]

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Oscar rodas asociaci n guyra paraguay ngo paraguay south am rica oscar guyra py

The Relation between Agriculture and Climate Change:Reducing the Vulnerability of the Agriculture Sector

Oscar Rodas

Asociación Guyra Paraguay (NGO)

Paraguay, South América

[email protected]


Oscar rodas asociaci n guyra paraguay ngo paraguay south am rica oscar guyra py

Global emissions of GHG related to human activities

Deforestation (land use changes)

and degradation

Fossils fuels

In Paraguay in 2011 soy growers will require massive amount of fossils fuels to transport around 10,000,000 tons of soy bean at an equivalent of 1 truck transporting 20 tons in 1 trip (around 500,000 roundtrips!). Additional to by truck transportation internally in the country, fossils fuels are used to export the soy bean by boats using the Paraguay Parana rivers hydroways.


Agriculture and climate change need to change an perfect vicious circle

AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: NEED TO CHANGE AN PERFECT VICIOUS CIRCLE

AGRICULTURE REDUCES

FOREST ECOSYSTEMS,

CLIMATE STABILIZATION,

GLOBAL SERVICE

CLIMATE CHANGE INCREASES

VULNERABILITY OF AGRICULTURE

AGRICULTURE CONTRIBUTES

TO CLIMATE CHANGE

AGRICULTURAL FRONTIER EXPANSION

IS BASED ON DEFORESTATION


Agriculture and climate change virtuous circle

AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE: VIRTUOUS CIRCLE

AGRICULTURE INCREASES:

AGRO ECOSYSTEMS AND FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

CLIMATE STABILIZATION

GLOBAL SERVICE

AGRICULTURAL VULNERABILITY

IS REDUCED

AGRICULTURE CONTRIBUTES

TO FIGHTING CLIMATE CHANGE

AGRICULTURE BUSSINES EXPANSION

IS BASED ON SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES INCLUDING

FOREST AREA INCREMENT, PROTECTION AND RESTORATION


Agriculture and climate change in lac

AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE IN LAC

Agriculture is in the broad sense critical for LAC.

Agriculture tied to LAC physical resource base and natural assets.

Especially in South American countries, a great part of GHGs come from the agricultural sector.

2007 IPCC Report:

  • reduced yields in warmer environment (for temperate climate crops)

  • growing incidence of heat waves

  • increased heat stress

  • wildfires

  • land degradation

  • crop damage

  • soil erosion,

  • heavy precipitation events

  • saltwater intrusion

  • soil salinization

    The impacts of CC on agriculture are expected to be substantial:

    Natural resource base, livelihoods, economy, etc.

    Lack of plans for resource management strategies

  • public and private investments

  • policy changes

  • future capacity to respond tochanges

  • Ccimate variability versus climate change

    National Climate Change Downsclaing Climate Change Scenarios

    in Paraguay predict a greater frequency of extreme

    weather events related to CC.


Agriculture and land use change

AGRICULTURE AND LAND-USE CHANGE

  • DETER deforestation monitoring system from Brazil report 1,920 hectares of deforestation in Amazonas Region, Brazil, between January and February in 2011.

  • Asociacion Guyra Paraguay Great South American Chaco deforestation monitoring system reports 232,000 hectares deforested in this region (including portions of Argentina, Bolivia, Brasil and Paraguay ) in 2010. The deforestation rates in Paraguayan Chaco in 2011, is around 400 hectares per day.

  • In general, in South America agriculture is related to exotic pastures implementation for cattle ranching (mainly to beef export business) and soy/sugar cane plantations.


Agriculture and land use change1

AGRICULTURE AND LAND-USE CHANGE

Asociación Guyra Paraguay WWF Agrupación de Policía Ecológica y Rural

Asunción – Paraguay - Junio de 2009


Agriculture and climate change adaptation

AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION

REDUCED VULNERABILITY MEANS INCREASED ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION CAPACITY AT THE SAME TIME!

In terms of adaptation, a wide variety of strategies should be used in agriculture:

  • Response to climatic variability to benefit farmers

  • Knowledge about options to maintain production levels and yields by farmers (crops, cattle, water use, etc.)

  • response to short-term climatic variations

  • long-term, planned adaptations to help anticipate and minimize the effects

  • To balance agricultural expansion and ecosystems services (especially forests providing climate stabilization services)

  • To create possitive incentives for private land owners, especially ranchers and soy growers to preserve forest (In Paraguay the Enviromental Services Law 3001/06 is active from 2006, but still with few participants)

  • In Brazil, a private sector initiative leaded by Soy Growers and Processors Group are implementing a system not to buy or commercialize soy products from deforestated areas in Amazonas


  • What the regional needs are

    What the regional needs are

    Climate information systems in place (Systems to enhance climate predictability)

    Water management technologies adopted (Improvements in water collection, drainage, irrigation distribution systems, maximize use of water in livestock production, etc.)

    Better integrated management of natural resources and production systems (this includes water management, conservation agriculture, crop and pasture rotations, adjustment of planting dates, etc.)

    Technological innovations to reduce climatic risks (biotechnology innovations to improve drought resistance and pests and disease resistance, invasive species, and improvements in irrigation infrastructure).

    Institutional innovations with capacity built for early warning systems for climate (improved policy and regulatory frameworks for water management, agricultural and catastrophicriskinsurance, etc.).

    Bottom-up participatoryprocessesforclimatechangeadaptation and reduce threatstoclimatevariability.


    What can be done today to improve the management of climatic risks and improve the adaptation

    What can be done today to improve the management of climatic risks and improve the adaptation?

    1. Identificate vulnerabilities and opportunities (with the agriculture sector)

    2. Reduce uncertities (learn from the past, monitor the present and information for the future)

    3. Identify technologies to reduce vulnerabilities (Diversify, store and efficient use of water, genetics, etc.)

    4. Identify institutional architecture and policy interventions to reduce or transfer risks

    • Systems for early alert and response systems

    • Insurance, recovery loans, etc.

    • Institutional arrangements & specific policies


    Challenges for agriculture and climate change

    CHALLENGES FOR AGRICULTURE AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Inter and intra-institutional coordination for State policies

    Technologies available and duly tried to face mitigation and adaptation

    Technical capacity to face technological challenges

    Capacity to promote public-private coalitions

    Capacity to provide bottom-up capacity for understanding variability and be prepared to face it.

    Sustainability of actions


    Southern south america actions related to deforestation

    SOUTHERN SOUTH AMERICA ACTIONS RELATED TO DEFORESTATION

    • Paraguay has a Zero Deforestation law (2004 to 2013) in the Oriental Region of the country.

    • Argentina is implementing the federal forest law, giving the mandate to the provinces to design and implement land-use plans related to native forest defined by three categories (no restrictions to forest conversion, sustainable use areas and protected forest areas). A map with three colors: Green, yellow and red

    4.112


    New agricultural practices and technologies and climate change

    NEW AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND TECHNOLOGIES AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    • Zero tillage in soy and othes related crops is proposed by the agricultural sector as a mitigation option related to climate change.

    • Paraguay, Brasil and Argentina are increasingly using Zero Tillage Agricultural Practices. Paraguay has 80% of the total soy crops under Zero Tillage. Paraguay soy plantation area is around 2.5 million hectares; it is the 4th global exporter of soybeans and the 10th exporter of beef products


    Agriculture vulnerability redd and social issues

    AGRICULTURE, VULNERABILITY, REDD+ AND SOCIAL ISSUES

    • Paraguay is still implementing the Agrarian Reform Proccess. 300,000 families of small farmers with an average of 10 hectares of land per family represent the main social factor of agriculture in Paraguay. The majority of the small farmers do not have any capacity for adaptation to climate change.

    • Brazil and Bolivia have a similar situation of small farmers colonies as Paraguay.

    • Asociacion Guyra Paraguay already obtained a gold-level certification of CCBA standard for a REDD+ pilot project involving small farmers’ settlements and are now going for the VCS standard certification. There is a potential of 3 million hectares to replicate the pilot project.


    Agriculture vulnerability redd and social issues1

    AGRICULTURE, VULNERABILITY, REDD+ AND SOCIAL ISSUES

    • In Southern South America, agricultural expansion is not only related to forest loss. Deforestation is affecting indigenous peoples’ territories.


    Some general ideas to explore

    SOME GENERAL IDEAS TO EXPLORE

    • Zero Tillage with no forest preservation is not an option to fight climate change.

    • Agro Forestry systems have been explored as a climate change adaptation option, especially for medium and small farms.

    • REDD+ including incentives related to payment for environmental services could be applied to a wide range of situations in agriculture and agriculture frontier expansion situations (example: indigenous territories ).

    • Alternative options, like binational hydroelectric enterprises paying for forest providing water services, have being tested to stabilize agriculture expansion over forests in rural municipalities near hydroelectric facilities watershed areas.


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