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Chapter 23 - Participles. Chapter 23 - Participles. General: When we take a verb and make an adjective out of it, we have constructed a verbal adjective or participle:. The shouting woman departed. The men saw the destroyed town. Chapter 23 - Participles.

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Chapter 23 participles1
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • General: When we take a verb and make an adjective out of it, we have constructed a

  • verbal adjective or participle:

The shouting woman departed.

The men saw the destroyed town.


Chapter 23 participles2
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • A participle, like any other adjective, must agree with the noun it modifies in gender,

  • number and case.

  • But the participle also has attributes of tense and voice:

“shouting” is present active

“destroyed” (i.e., “having been destroyed”) is perfect passive.


Chapter 23 participles3
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • Because the participle, although an adjective, retains verbal force, it may take a direct

  • object:

We saw Hercules drinking the wine: Vidimus Herculem vinum bibentem.

“Drinking the wine” modifies Hercules.


Chapter 23 participles4
Chapter 23 - Participles

Formation:

Active Passive

Present:amäns, amantis ----------

(loving)

Perfect: ---------- amätus, -a, -um

(having been loved)

Future:amätürus, -a, -um amandus, -a, -um

(about to love) (about to be loved)


Chapter 23 participles5
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • Present Active Participle:

Agens, agentis – leading, of the one leading (gen)

  • Add -ns to the present stem (-ntis for genitive singular)

  • decline like third declension adjectives of one termination.

  • In the case of i-stem verbs,

  • -ie- will appear: capiëns, capientis.


Chapter 23 participles6
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • Perfect Passive Participle:

āctus, a, um – led, having been led

  • This is the fourth principal part of the verb, declined as an

  • adjective of the 1st and 2nd declension.


Chapter 23 participles7
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • Future Active Participle:

ācturus, a, um – about to lead, going to lead

  • Take the fourth principal part of the verb, drop the -us

  • add -ürus, -a, -um. Then decline as a 1st and 2nd declension adjective.


Chapter 23 participles8
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • Future Passive Participle:

Agendus, a, um – about to be led, must be led

  • Add -ndus, -a, -um to the present stem.

  • Then decline as a 1st and 2nd declension adjective.

  • In i-stem verbs, -ie- will appear: audiendus, -a, -um; sentiendus, -a, -um.


Chapter 23 participles9
Chapter 23 - Participles

Uses of the Participle:

  • The tense of a participle is always relative to that of the main verb.

  • A present participle refers to action contemporaneous with that of the main verb (whether the main verb is

  • past, present or future).


Chapter 23 participles10
Chapter 23 - Participles

  • A perfect participle refers to action prior to that of the main verb.

  • A future participle refers to action subsequent to that of the main verb.

  • A proper understanding of Latin participles must always bear in the mind their tense and voice.


Chapter 23 participles11
Chapter 23 - Participles

Present active participle: contemporaneous action, active voice.

Fëmina clämäns eum vidit:

The shouting woman saw him.

Shouting, the woman saw him.

While she was shouting, the woman saw him.


Chapter 23 participles12
Chapter 23 - Participles

Perfect passive participle: prior action, passive voice.

Fëmina territa clämävit.

The having-been-frightened woman shouted.

The woman, having been frightened, shouted.

The frightened woman shouted.

When she had been frightened, the woman shouted.


Chapter 23 participles13
Chapter 23 - Participles

Future active participle: subsequent action, active voice.

Fëmina dictüra virum vïdit.

The about-to-speak woman saw her husband.

The woman, about to speak, saw her husband.

About to speak, the woman saw her husband.

When the woman was about to speak, she saw her husband.


Chapter 23 participles14
Chapter 23 - Participles

Future passive participle (gerundive): subsequent action, passive voice.

Librös legendös in mënsä posuit.

He placed having-to-be-read books on the table.

He placed books to be read on the table

He placed books which should be read on the table.



A visit from the young interns1
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)

Languebam: sed tu comitatus protinus ad me


A visit from the young interns2
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)

Languebam: sed tu comitatus protinus ad me venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis.


A visit from the young interns3
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)

Languebam: sed tu comitatus protinus ad me venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis. Centum me tetigere manus aquilone gelatae:


A visit from the young interns4
A Visit from the Young Interns (???)

Languebam: sed tu comitatus protinus ad me venisti centum, Symmache, discipulis. Centum me tetigere manus aquilone gelatae: non habui febrem, Symmache, nunc habeo!


Homework
Homework

Dum vita est, spes est.


Homework1
Homework

Dum vita est, spes est.

Ubi tyrannus est,


Homework2
Homework

Dum vita est, spes est.

Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res publica.


Homework3
Homework

Dum vita est, spes est.

Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res publica.

Spes coniuratorum mollibus sententiis multorum civium alitur.


Homework4
Homework

Dum vita est, spes est.

Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res publica.

Spes coniuratorum mollibus sententiis multorum civium alitur.

Stoicus noster, “Vitium,” inquit,


Homework5
Homework

Dum vita est, spes est.

Ubi tyrannus est, ibi plane est nulla res publica.

Spes coniuratorum mollibus sententiis multorum civium alitur.

Stoicus noster, “Vitium,” inquit, “non est in rebus sed in animo ipso.”


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