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REVIEW CHAPTER 8. US HISTORY. ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION. The Second Continental Congress issued a set of laws called the Articles of Confederation in 1781 Gave states one vote each in Congress regardless of population of state Split power between National Government and State.

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REVIEW CHAPTER 8

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Review chapter 8

REVIEW CHAPTER 8

US HISTORY


Articles of confederation

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

  • The Second Continental Congress issued a set of laws called the Articles of Confederation in 1781

  • Gave states one vote each in Congress regardless of population of state

  • Split power between National Government and State


Accomplishments of articles of confederation

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION

  • America’s first Constitution

  • Established National governments ability to wage war, sign treaties, coin money, run post office

  • Land Ordinance of 1785 – made land parcels small & affordable

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 – set requirement for HOW A NEW STATE COULD BE ADMITTED TO THE UNION


Weaknesses of the article of confederation

WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLE OF CONFEDERATION

  • Congress could not collect OR LEVY taxes

  • Each state had one vote regardless of population

  • No executive branch

  • No national court system

  • Nine of thirteen states needed to agree to pass any law

  • Lacked national unity

  • Weak Central Gov’t


Shay s rebellion

SHAY’S REBELLION

  • An event that highlighted the weakness of the Central (National) government was Shay’s Rebellion

  • Farmers in western Massachusetts rose up in protest over increased taxes

  • Daniel Shay led 1,200 farmers toward the arsenal in Springfield

  • The event caused alarm throughout the republic

1787


Creating a new government

CREATING A NEW GOVERNMENT

  • The delegates at the Constitutional Convention realized the need to strengthen the central government

  • They soon decided to create an entirely new Constitution instead of amending the Articles

  • Compromise was the order of the day


Virginia vs new jersey plans

VIRGINIA VS. NEW JERSEY PLANS

  • Virginia Plan:Bicameral Legislature based on state population

  • New Jersey Plan: Unicameral Legislature based on one state = one vote


Great compromise

GREAT COMPROMISE

  • After a deadlocked that dragged on & on, Roger Sherman finally suggested the Great Compromise which satisfied both big & small states

  • Bicameral Congress with House of Reps based on population (VA Plan) and Senate based on one state = one vote (NJ Plan)


Three fifths compromise

THREE-FIFTHS COMPROMISE

  • Next difficult issue: Slavery

  • Southern states wanted slaves included in the population figures used to determine Representatives

  • Northern states which had few slaves, disagreed

  • Compromise was to count each slave as 3/5ths of a person


Division of powers

DIVISION OF POWERS

  • Next issue: Should the National government or the states hold power? Who shall be sovereign?

  • Delegates choose to split power

  • Federalism system developed

  • Federal government had delegated, or enumerated powers (Coin, trade, war, etc.)

  • States had reserved powers (education)


Separation of powers

SEPARATION OF POWERS


Ratifying the constitution

RATIFYING THE CONSTITUTION

  • The Constitutional Convention adjourned in September of 1787

  • Nine of thirteen states had to ratify the Constitution

  • Supporters of the Constitution were Federalists. Those opposed were Anti-Federalist


Federalist

FEDERALIST

  • Led by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay, Federalist believed that while the Constitution was not perfect, it was far superior to the Articles of Confederation

  • They favored a strong central government

James Madison “Father of the Constitution”


Anti federalist

ANTI-FEDERALIST

  • The Anti-Federalist view was that the Constitution did not guarantee the rights of the people of the states

  • Led by Patrick Henry, George Mason, and Richard Henry Lee, the Anti-Federalists wanted a Bill of Rights to off-set the strong central government

Lee penned his views in the widely read, Letters from the Federal Farmers


Adoption of the bill of rights

ADOPTION OF THE BILL OF RIGHTS

  • To satisfy the States-Rights advocates, a Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to guarantee individual rights

  • The Bill of Rights was ratified in December of 1791- three years after the Constitution was ratified

First Ten Amendments


Oldest living constitution

OLDEST LIVING CONSTITUTION

  • The U.S. Constitution is the oldest written national constitution in the world

  • Elastic Clause key to flexibility

  • Also ability to change, or “amend” the Constitution helps preserve it

  • 27 Amendments have been added


Launching the new nation section 4

LAUNCHING THE NEW NATION – SECTION 4

  • The hero of the Revolution was the unanimous choice for the nation’s first president

  • Washington took office under the Constitution and with the Congress

  • He faced an enormous task of creating a newgovernment

America’s First President


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