Chemical weapons l.jpg
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 35

Chemical Weapons PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 135 Views
  • Updated On :
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chemical Weapons. How are they “unconventional?”. I. History of CW: See Readings. Note the process of “agent escalation” – tear gas  chlorine  phosgene  mustard  lewisite, etc. Note also the efforts to control CW Finally, compare military effects of CW to conventional explosives.

Download Presentation

Chemical Weapons

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chemical Weapons

How are they “unconventional?”


I. History of CW: See Readings

  • Note the process of “agent escalation” – tear gas  chlorine  phosgene  mustard  lewisite, etc.

  • Note also the efforts to control CW

  • Finally, compare military effects of CW to conventional explosives


II. Effects of CW

  • Distinction between protected / unprotected targets: CW seldom kills protected troops.

  • Specific Agents Have Different Effects


1. “Poison Gas:” Blood Gases and Pulmonary Agents

  • Casualties: High within small areas

  • Uses on the battlefield: Quickly dispersed by wind and diluted by air

  • Recent uses: Used for executions in enclosed areas, used by Iraqi insurgents


d. Sources of Condemnation

  • Use for executions and mass murder (Holocaust)

  • Secondary effect on medical personnel during surgery (release of toxic gases)

  • Agent Escalation and Mass casualties in WW I


2. Vesicants

  • Casualties:

    • Mustard: Few in short-term but many over long period. High proportion of wounded to killed.

    • Lewisite: Many casualties quickly – death can occur within minutes.

  • Uses on the battlefield: Mass casualties to overload medical systems, force use of bulky CW equipment, secondary area contamination

  • Recent uses: Most common agents used in modern wars (Yemen, Iran-Iraq)


d. Sources of Condemnation

  • Invisibility of threat – Soldiers can acquire lethal doses without realizing it, then die painfully days later

  • Nature of injuries – Blistering and burns. Example (Iranian casualty from Iraqi mustard attack):


3. Nerve Agents

  • Casualties: Very high within area of exposure. Decline with distance and time

  • Uses on the battlefield: Mass fatalities, Area contamination, force use of bulky CW equipment

  • Recent uses: Iraqi use against Kurds, Aum Shinrikyo

  • Sources of condemnation: Invisibility, pre-existing norms against CW


4. Incapacitants (CS, BZ, Fentanyl)

  • Casualties: Designed to temporarily disable without killing. Overdoses can be lethal.

  • Uses on the Battlefield: Flush enemies from bunkers, disable command/control, avoiding civilian deaths in riots and hostage rescue situations

  • Recent Uses: US in Vietnam, Iraq against Iran and Kurds, Waco and Moscow theater sieges

  • Sources of condemnation: Agent escalation in WW I and subsequent conflicts


III. The Law of CW Use (Proliferation will come later…)

  • Declaration of St. Petersburg (1868) – Renounces use of small (< 400 g) “fulminating or inflammable” projectiles in war (explosive bullets) between signatories

  • Hague Convention (1899) – Renounces use of projectiles that diffuse asphyxiating or deleterious gases (Germany claims chlorine cylinder attack doesn’t violate – later claims Mustard isn’t a gas)


C. Geneva Protocol (1925)

  • Prohibited the use of "asphyxiating gas, or any other kind of gas, liquids, substances or similar materials“

  • Only applied to interstate wars (states reserved the right to use CW against their own people or colonies)

  • Many nations reserve right to retaliate against violators

  • Ambiguous use of “other” is interpreted to allow nonlethal CW


D. The Chemical Weapons Convention

  • Outlaws all use of CW agents except:

    • “1. Industrial, agricultural, research, medical, pharmaceutical or other peaceful purposes;

    • 2. Protective purposes, namely those purposes directly related to protection against toxic chemicals and to protection against chemical weapons;

    • 3. Military purposes not connected with the use of chemical weapons and not dependent on the use of the toxic properties of chemicals as a method of warfare;

    • 4. Law enforcement including domestic riot control purposes.”

  • Note that riot control agents are now prohibited in warfare

  • Also note that toxic chemicals are OK if their other properties (flammability, explosiveness, etc) are the key to their military effectiveness


  • E. Which countries can legally use CW?

    • Not bound by Geneva Protocol or CWC:

      • Bahamas (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Comoros (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Congo (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Myanmar (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Somalia

    • Bound by Geneva Protocol but not CWC:

      • Central African Republic (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Dominican Republic (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Guinea-Bissau (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Israel (signed CWC but has not ratified)

      • Angola

      • Barbados

      • North Korea

      • Egypt

      • Iraq (bound by UN cease-fire agreement of 1991)

      • Lebanon

      • Syrian Arab Republic


    III. Are CW WMD?

    • Problem: Accurate modeling difficult. Examples:

      1. Single release may generate multiple plumes


    2. Buildings affect dispersion


    B. DHS Scenarios

    • Mustard/Lewisite released by aircraft over stadium of 100,000 people

      • 150 fatalities; 70,000 hospitalized

    • Sarin injected into three large office buildings using six injectors

      • 6,000 fatalities (95% of building occupants); 350 injuries


    C. Rough Estimation

    • Model plume as if no terrain exists. Plume is teardrop-shaped (if wind > 10 km/hr) or circular (if little wind) from point of release

    • Plume is more elongated as wind increases, but also less concentrated

    • Divide plume into zones

    • Assign each zone a lethality level (% killed) based on likely dose

    • Estimate # of people in each zone and apply lethality levels to determine deaths


    Sample Lethality Table


    D. Persistence: Difficult to estimate economic damages or area-denial importance

    • Since attacks have little effect on protected targets, real intent is often to degrade efficiency through contamination (requires bulky protective gear)


    E. Chemicals compared to bioweapons and nuclear weapons


    F. Example: Attack on NYC(King’s County Census Tracts)

    Map = Approx. 7 miles across

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    Wind 15 MPH


    Attack Parameters

    • Nerve Gas (Sarin) sprayed at ground level from trucks over 2-block area

    • About 2000 Gallons used


    Point of attack

    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

    Wind 15 MPH


    Plume by Time

    3 minutes

    6 minutes

    12 minutes

    0 1 2 3 4 5

    Wind 15 MPH


    Plume by Time

    3 minutes

    6 minutes

    12 minutes

    0 1 2 3 4 5

    Wind 15 MPH


    Next Step: Figure out how many are in each plume area

    • Zooming in on affected area….


    Next Step: Figure out how many are in each plume area

    • Averaging Population per Census Tract

    Average People

    845

    2363

    3717

    5649

    10934


    Next Step: Figure out how many are in each plume area

    • Count Census Tracts in each zone

    AvePop0-3 m3-6 m6-12 m

    845105

    23632713

    3717044

    56490.751.5

    10934.6701


    How many were exposed?

    • Simple model assumes no protection – as if everyone was standing outside

    AvePop0-3 m3-6 m6-12 m

    845105

    23632713

    3717044

    56490.751.5

    10934.6701


    How many were exposed?

    • Multiply number of tracts by average tract population…..

    AvePop0-3 m3-6 m6-12 m

    84584504225

    236357261654130719

    371701486814868

    5649042378474

    109347326010934


    How many were exposed?

    • Multiply number of tracts by average tract population…..

    AvePop0-3 m3-6 m6-12 m

    84584504225

    236357261654130719

    371701486814868

    5649042378474

    109347326010934

    TOTALS138973564669220


    Compare to average lethality for each zone

    • Problem: requires data on aerosol dispersion given wind speed and quantities used. Pre-calculated tables best.

    • Sample data for Sarin:

      • 3 min zone = 30% dead

      • 3-6 min zone = 15% dead

      • 6-12 min zone = 5% dead


    Adding up deaths


  • Login