Research Methods. KINE 5300. Definitions of Research. The main goal of research is the gathering and interpreting of information to answer questions (Hyllegard, Mood, and Morrow, 1996). Research is a systematic attempt to provide answers to questions (Tuckman, 1999).
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New Questions Arise
Closed-loop conceptualization of the research process (Drew, Hardman, and Hart, 1996)
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1996 Sep 6;45(35):760-5.
School-based HIV-prevention education--United States, 1994.[No authors listed]Many adolescents in the United States engage in behaviors that increase their risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Because 95% of all youth aged 5-17 years are enrolled in school, school health programs can be an efficient method to help prevent these behaviors. Previous studies have examined selected characteristics of HIV education in the United States; however, none provide a comprehensive assessment of HIV education policies and programs nationwide. In 1994, CDC conducted the School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS), which assessed five components of the school health program: health education, physical education, health services, food service, and health policies. To provide a comprehensive assessment of HIV-prevention education programs nationwide in 1994, CDC analyzed data from the health education component of the study. This report summarizes the findings, which indicate that although HIV-prevention education has been widely implemented in U.S. schools, improvement in these programs is needed.
Am J Epidemiol. 1988 May;127(5):933-41.
Relation of cardiovascular fitness and physical activity to cardiovascular disease risk factors in children and adults.Sallis JF, Patterson TL, Buono MJ, Nader PR.Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla.The associations of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness with cardiovascular disease risk factors were studied in 88 male adults, 180 female adults, 148 male children, and 142 female children. Subjects were families recruited from elementary schools in San Diego, California. Fitness (VO2 max) was measured by a submaximal cycle ergometer test. Physical activity was assessed by seven-day recall interview, yielding caloric expenditure, and by a simple self-rating of activity level. Risk factors included blood pressure, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the ratio of high density lipoproteins to low density lipoproteins (LDL), and body mass index. For all subgroups, fitness was strongly and significantly correlated with virtually all risk factors. After adjustment for body mass index, most fitness-risk factor associations were no longer significant. Seven-day caloric expenditure was significantly correlated with HDL/LDL only in female adults and children. The activity rating was significantly correlated with body mass index in all subgroups and with HDL/LDL in female adults and male adults. The simple activity rating tended to be correlated with fitness. The pattern of association was similar for adults and children.
In an ideal world…
Pure, fundamental research
Discovery of new knowledge; theoretical in nature
Takes many years for the results of basic research to find some practical utility
Central purpose to solve an immediate problem
Improved products or processes
Infers beyond the group or situation studied
Interpretation of results relies upon Basic research
J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2003 Mar;43(1):21-7. Related Articles, Links
Effects of running, static stretching and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance.
Young WB, Behm DG.
School of Human Movement and Sport Sciences, University of Ballarat, Ballarat, Victoria, Australia. email@example.com
AIM: The interaction between running, stretching and practice jumps during warm-up for jumping tests has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of running, static stretching of the leg extensors and practice jumps on explosive force production and jumping performance. METHODS: Sixteen volunteers (13 male and 3 female) participated in five different warm-ups in a randomised order prior to the performance of two jumping tests. The warm-ups were control, 4 min run, static stretch, run + stretch, and run + stretch + practice jumps. After a 2 min rest, a concentric jump and a drop jump were performed, which yielded 6 variables expressing fast force production and jumping performance of the leg extensor muscles (concentric jump height, peak force, rate of force developed, drop jump height, contact time and height/time). RESULTS: Generally the stretching warm-up produced the lowest values and the run or run + stretch + jumps warm-ups produced the highest values of explosive force production. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) between the control and run + stretch warm-ups, whereas the run yielded significantly better scores than the run + stretch warm-up for drop jump height (3.2%), concentric jump height (3.4%) and peak concentric force (2.7%) and rate of force developed (15.4%). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that submaximum running and practice jumps had a positive effect whereas static stretching had a negative influence on explosive force and jumping performance. It was suggested that an alternative for static stretching should be considered in warm-ups prior to power activities.
Numerical, measurable data
Traditional or positivist approach
Clearly stated questions
Developed research procedures
Extraneous variable controls
Traditional, statistical analyses
Generally non-numerical data
Typically anthropological and sociological research methods
Observations of a “natural” setting
In-depth descriptions of situations
Interpretive and descriptive
IVs and DVs
Extraneous variable controls
3 fundamental characteristics
At least 1 active IV
Extraneous var controls
Observation of the DV response to the IV