Physiology
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PHYSIOLOGY. REPRODUCTION. Oogenesis: Egg Cell Formation. Oogonia mitosis ceases before birth At birth: only primary oocytes – suspended in prophase of meiosis I (= prophase I). Oogenesis after Birth:. At puberty: ↑ estrogen initiates ovarian cycle. ovulation.

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PHYSIOLOGY

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Physiology

PHYSIOLOGY

REPRODUCTION


Physiology

Oogenesis: Egg Cell Formation

Oogonia mitosis ceases before birth

At birth: only primary oocytes – suspended in prophase of meiosis I (= prophase I)


Physiology

Oogenesis after Birth:

At puberty: ↑ estrogen initiates ovarian cycle

ovulation

2nd meiotic division completed after fertilization


Physiology

Growth and Aging

  • Puberty (  GnRH)

    • in girls = menarche

      • Average 12 y

    • In boys, later (harder to pinpoint a time)

  • Menopause

    • Irregular menstrual periods and cessation

  • Andropause

    • Similar drop in androgens


Physiology

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Physiology

Biosynthetic Pathway for Steroid Hormones

Theca cells

Synthesize androgens

Granulosa cells

convert androgens to

estrogen

diffusion


Physiology

Spermatogenesis

  • Seminiferous tubules

  • Sertoli cells: androgen binding protein blood testes barrier etc.

  • Leydig cells testosterone vs. DHT


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