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NUTRICION Y DEPORTE M.C. JESUS JAVIER LUNA ALCANTARA IFAL, UNIVERSIDAD DE LA HABANA, CUBA PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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NUTRICION Y DEPORTE M.C. JESUS JAVIER LUNA ALCANTARA IFAL, UNIVERSIDAD DE LA HABANA, CUBA FUERZAS BASICAS CLUB PUEBLA F.C ENDIT CAMPUS PUEBLA. LA PREPARACION ES DE 24 HORAS AL DIA.

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NUTRICION Y DEPORTE M.C. JESUS JAVIER LUNA ALCANTARA IFAL, UNIVERSIDAD DE LA HABANA, CUBA

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Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

NUTRICION

Y

DEPORTE

M.C. JESUS JAVIER LUNA ALCANTARA

IFAL, UNIVERSIDAD DE LA HABANA, CUBA

FUERZAS BASICAS CLUB PUEBLA F.C

ENDIT CAMPUS PUEBLA


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

LA PREPARACION ES DE 24 HORAS AL DIA


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

¿DEL ÉXITO QUE PORCENTAJE ESTÁ DETERMINADO POR EL TRABAJO FUTBOLÍSTICO Y CUAL POR LA PARTE NUTRICIONAL, MENTAL, AFECTIVA, ESPIRITUAL Y SOCIAL?


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • PROTEINAS

  • ESTAN FORMADAS POR LA UNION DE AMINOACIDOS, LOS CUALES PUEDEN SER ESENCIALES

  • Y NO ESENCIALES.

  • FUENTES

  • ANIMALES

  • VEGETALES

  • COMPLEMENTACION CEREAL-LEGUMINOSA

  • FUNCIONES

  • FORMACION Y MANTENIMIENTO DE LOS TEJIDOS, SINTESIS DE ANTICUERPOS, FORMACION

  • DE HEMOGLOBINA Y ENZIMAS.

  • SINTOMAS CARENCIALES

  • DEBILIDAD, APATIA, INMUNODEPRESION

  • CONSECUENCIAS DEL EXCESO

  • ENFERMEDADES RENALES

  • GOTA

  • NECESIDADES DIARIAS

  • DEL 10 -15 % DE LA ENERGIA INGERIDA, 50 GRAMOS PROMEDIO EN EL ADULTO.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • HIDRATOS DE CARBONO

  • HIDRATOS DE CARBONO ABSORBIBLES

  • SIMPLES COMO LA GLUCOSA, FRUCTOSA, SACAROSA, LACTOSA. SON LLAMADOS AZUCARES

  • COMPLEJOS COMO EL ALMIDON Y EL GLUCOGENO.

  • EL ALMIDON ES EL HIDRATO DE CARBONO MAS SALUDABLE, PREFERIBLE A LOS AZUCARES Y QUE MEJOR TOLERAN LOS DIABETICOS.

  • FUNCIONES

  • CONSTITUYEN LA MEJOR FUENTE DE ENERGIA

  • SINTOMAS CARENCIALES.

  • CETOSIS, CONSUMO DE LAS PROPIAS PROTEINAS, DESHIDRATACION

  • NECESIDADES DIARIAS

  • 60 % DE LA ENERGIA, 300 GRAMOS DIARIOS EN ADULTOS


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • LIPIDOS

  • ESTAN FORMADOS POR TRIGLICERIDOS.

  • FUENTES

  • ALIMENTOS DE ORIGEN VEGETAL. TIENEN ACIDOS GRASOS INSATURADOS

  • Y SUSTANCIAS BENEFICAS COMO LECITINA, FITOESTEROLES Y VITAMINA E.

  • ALIMENTOS DE ORIGEN ANIMAL. TIENEN ELEVADA PROPORCION DE

  • ACIDOS GRASOS SATURADOS, CONTIENEN COLESTEROL

  • FUNCIONES

  • RESERVA DE ENERGIA, FACILITAN LA ABSORCION DE VITAMINAS

  • LIPOSOLUBLES, A, D, E, K.

  • INGESTA DIARIA RECOMENDADA

  • 30 % DE LA ENERGIA, 65 GRAMOS DIARIOS


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

VITAMINA A

SE ENCUENTRA EN ALIMENTOS DE ORIGEN ANIMAL Y COMO CAROTENOS

EN VEGETALES

FUNCIONES

VISION, CRECIMIENTO, DESARROLLO OSEO Y DENTARIO, MANTENIMIENTO DE LA

PIEL Y DE LAS MUCOSAS, PROTECCION CONTRA EL CANCER, ANTIOXIDANTES,

PROTECTORES DEL CORAZON.

VITAMINA A (ug ER/100g)

JITOMATE 62.00

LECHUGA260.00

MANGO389.00

ESPINACA672.00

ZANAHORIA 2813.00

POLLO 16.00

LECHE 31.00

HUEVO 191.00

MANTEQUILLA 754.00

HIGADO 4427.00


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • CALCIO

  • ADEMAS DE LOS LACTEOS EXISTEN VEGETALES RICOS EN CALCIO.

  • FAVORECEN SU ABSORCION

  • VITAMINA D , LACTOSA

  • INTERFIEREN SU ABSORCION

  • EXCESO DE FOSFORO, TANINOS

  • FUNCIONES

  • FORMACION DE HUESOS Y DIENTES

  • CONTRACCION MUSCULAR

  • TRANSMISION DE IMPULSOS NERVIOSOS

  • COAGULACION DE LA SANGRE

  • SINTOMAS CARENCIALES

  • RAQUITISMO, OSTEOPOROSIS


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

DIETA PARA NIÑOS EN

EDAD ESCOLAR

ALIMENTOS QUE DEBEN INCLUIRSE DIARIAMENTE:

CARNE, AVES O PESCADO: 90 GRAMOS

HUEVO: 1 PIEZA

LECHE: 1 LITRO

CEREAL: 5 RACIONES

VERDURAS: 2 RACIONES

FRUTAS. 2 RACIONES

ACEITE: 2 CUCHARADITAS


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

EJEMPLO DE MENU PARA EL ADOLESCENTE

DESAYUNO MANDARINA

MOLLETES

SALSA

LECHE

COLACIÓNTORTA

COMIDA ESPAGUETI

PICADILLO

ENSALADA

PASTEL DE CALABACITAS

TORTILLAS

AGUA FRESCA

COLACIÓN MANZANA

CENAENSALADA DE FRUTAS

QUESADILLAS

FRIJOLES

ATOLE DE FRESA


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • RESPONSABILIDAD DE LOS

  • ENCARGADOS DE LA ALIMENTACIÓN

  • SON RESPONSABLES DE:

    • SELECCIONAR Y COMPRAR LOS ALIMENTOS

    • PREPARAR Y OFRECER LAS COMIDAS

    • REGULAR EL HORARIO DE LAS COMIDAS

    • HACER AGRADABLES LAS HORAS DE LAS COMIDAS

  • NO SON RESPONSABLES DE:

    • DECIDIR QUE CANTIDAD COME EL NIÑO

    • DECIDIR SI COME O NO


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • PRESENTACIÓN DE LOS ALIMENTOS

    • AYUDAR A CORTAR TROZOS DEL TAMAÑO DE UN BOCADO

    • OFRECER LA MISMA COMIDA QUE CONSUME TODA LA FAMILIA

    • SERVIR RACIONES PEQUEÑAS

    • PREPARAR ALIMENTOS QUE EL NIÑO PUEDA TOMAR CON LAS MANOS

    • COMBINAR COLORES PARA HACER MAS ATRACTIVA LA COMIDA

    • ACEPTAR CIERTOS CAPRICHOS

    • SENTAR AL NIÑO DE MANERA QUE TENGA COMODIDAD


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

COMIDAS RAPIDAS

POR LO GENERAL SON POBRES EN CALCIO Y VITAMINA A Y ABUNDANTES EN SODIO Y LÍPIDOS.

TAMBIEN SE HA ENCONTRADO QUE SU CONTENIDO DE AZUCAR ES MUY ELEVADO, MIENTRAS QUE EL DE FIBRA Y VITAMINA C ES ESCASO.

CUANDO SE CONSUMEN CON MODERACIÓN Y COMO PARTE DE UNA DIETA RECOMENDABLE, NO PONEN EN RIESGO EL ESTADO DE NUTRICION DE LOS NIÑOS.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

GOLOSINAS, BOTANAS Y REFRESCOS

CONVIENE NO SATANIZAR A ESTOS PRODUCTOS NI ETIQUETARLOS COMO “ALIMENTOS CHATARRA”, SINO DARLES SU JUSTO VALOR COMO ALIMENTOS DE CONSUMO OCASIONAL


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

CARACTERÍSTICAS PSICOLÓGICAS DE LA PACIENTE CON ANOREXIA NERVOSA

-     AUTOIMAGEN DISTORSIONADA

-     ESCASA AUTOESTIMA

-     DEPRESIÓN

-     PENSAMIENTOS OBSESIVOS

-     TENDENCIA AL PERFECCIONISMO

-     POBRE COMUNICACIÓN

-     CONDUCTAS AUTODESTRUCTIVAS

-     DIFICULTAD PARA CONCENTRARSE

-     IRRITABILIDAD

- OBSESION POR LA COMIDA Y EL EJERCICIO


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • NUTRICION Y LONGEVIDAD

    • AUMENTAR EL CONSUMO DE FIBRA

    • REDUCIR AZUCARES SENCILLOS

    • INCLUIR SOYA

    • TOMAR TE VERDE

    • ALIMENTOS RICOS EN ANTIOXIDANTES

    • ALIMENTOS RICOS EN CALCIO

    • COMER CRUCÍFERAS DIARIAMENTE

    • SUPLEMENTAR CON VITAMINAS Y MINERALES

    • REALIZAR ACTIVIDAD FÍSICA

    • CONSUMIR ALIMENTOS SIN PROCESAR

    • INCLUIR ACIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3

    • COCINAR CON AJO Y ACEITE DE OLIVA

    • COMER CARNE SIN HORMONAS NI ANTIBIÓTICOS

    • MINIMO 6 RACIONES DE FRUTA Y VERDURA AL DIA

    • PRACTICAS DE RELAJACIÓN

    • TOMAR SUFICIENTE AGUA


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

LICOPENO

Carotenoide encontrado en la más alta concentración en el plasma sérico humano.

Al evaluar dietas de más de 47000 sujetos indican que de 46 frutas y vegetales evaluados solo los producto de tomate como pizza y salsa pueden reducir el riesgo de cáncer de próstata. Los beneficios a la salud se logran con el consumo de 2 vasos de jugo de jitomate (540 ml) diarios.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

ANTOCIANIDINAS

Recogen radicales libres que se encuentran en los fluidos de los tejidos beneficiando especialmente a atletas, debido a que el ejercicio extenuante genera gran cantidad de radicales libres.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

ACIDOS GRASOS

ACIDOS GRASOS OMEGA-3

Se encuentran en atún y aceites marinos, reducen el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares y favorecen las funciones mentales y visuales.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

RESVERATROL

  • Protege contra la aterosclerosis por su actividad antioxidante e inhibiendo la agregación de plaquetas.

  • Tiene actividad anticancer.

  • Un vaso de vino tinto aporta 640 mcg.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

ES BUENA FUENTE DE FLAVONOIDES, PRESENTAN ACCIÓN INHIBITORIA DE ALGUNAS ENZIMAS, BLOQUEAN RADICALES LIBRES, EVITAN LA AGLOMERACIÓN DE PLAQUETAS REDUCIENDO RIESGO DE ATEROSCLEROSIS.

INHIBEN ENZIMAS QUE CAUSAN AUMENTO EN LA PRESIÓN ARTERIAL, RETRASAN O PREVIENEN ALGUNOS EFECTOS DEL ENVEJECIMIENTO.

EN JAPÓN SE DEMOSTRÓ QUE REDUCEN LA INCIDENCIA DE CÁNCER ORAL EN UN 75%.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

Hoy en día prevalece la idea de que la depresión es una alteración bioquímica que afecta a los neurotransmisores . Esta teoría se contrapone a la que le daba una causa exclusivamente psicológica, según la cual la depresión venía como consecuencia de una agresividad reprimida, por la pérdida de algún ser querido o de otros problemas más complejos de comportamiento.


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • Cutting down or avoiding potential food 'stressors‘

  • The strategies found to be helpful were:

  • Cutting down on sugar (80%, n = 132)Cutting down on caffeine (79%, n = 131)Cutting down on alcohol (55%, n = 91)Cutting down on chocolate (53%, n = 88)Cutting down on wheat-containing foods (48%, n = 79)Cutting down on additives (47%, n = 77)Cutting down on dairy (44%, n = 72)Cutting down on saturated fats (39%, n = 64)

  • The two self-help strategies most frequently found to be beneficial (i.e. 'helpful' or 'very helpful' to emotional or mental health) were cutting down on sugar (80%, n = 132) and cutting down on caffeine (79%, n = 131).


Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

  • Increasing potential food 'supporters‘

  • The strategies found to be helpful were:

  • Drinking more water (80%, n = 132)Eating more vegetables (78%, n = 129)Eating more fruit (72%, n = 119)Eating more oil rich fish (52%, n = 86)Eating more nuts and seeds (51%, n = 85)Eating more 'brown' (wholegrain) food (50%, n = 82)Eating more fibre (48%, n = 80)Eating more protein (41%, n = 67)Eating more organic food (36%, n = 59)

  • The most frequently reported beneficial self-help strategy in this

  • section was drinking more water. This was found to be 'helpful' or ‘

  • very helpful' by 132 people (80%). Eating more vegetables (78%) and

  • eating more fruit (72%) were also frequently reported as beneficial.


  • Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    • Making changes to eating habits

    • The strategies found to be helpful were:

    • Eating regular meals and snacks (67%, n = 110)Being prepared - carrying snacks (56%, n = 93)Eating breakfast (55%, n = 90)Planning meals in advance (42%, n = 69)

    • Eating regular meals and snacks was found to be 'helpful' or very helpful' for improving emotional or mental health by 110 (67%) of the survey participants actively using dietary and nutritional self-help.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    • Boost your alertness with protein. Protein foods are broken down into their amino acid building blocks during digestion. One amino acid, called tyrosine, will increase the production of dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. These neurotransmitters are known for their ability to increase levels of alertness and energy. No one eats pure tyrosine, but eating foods high in protein will give you a slight mental boost. High protein foods include fish, poultry, meat, and eggs. If you can't eat those, try high protein foods that also contain significant amount of carbohydrates, such as legumes, cheese, milk, or tofu.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    • For relaxation and anti-stress, eat carbohydrates. Once in the brain, the tryptophan is converted to serotonin. Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has the effect of reducing pain, decreasing appetite, and producing a sense of calm, and in too large a quantity, inducing sleep. Research has shown that dieters tend to become depressed about two weeks into a diet, about the time their serotonin levels have dropped due to decreased carbohydrate intake. Healthy carbohydrate foods to turn to for anti-stress include whole grain breads and crackers, whole grain pasta, rice, cereal, and fruits.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    • Put eggs back in your diet to improve memory and concentration. One nutrient that many of us are apt to be low on, in our fervor to avoid high-cholesterol foods, is choline. Choline is a B complex vitamin that is concentrated in high cholesterol foods like eggs and liver. A lack of choline can cause impairment of memory and concentration. Choline is a precursor to the brain neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is linked to memory. People given drugs that block acetylcholine flunk memory tests. Low levels of acetylcholine have been linked to Alzheimer's disease and poor memory. What a good excuse to put eggs back on your diet plan!


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    CARBOHYDRATE serves as the primary energy source for working muscles and helps the body to use fat more efficiently. Carbohydrates are stored in the liver as glycogen, but the body can only store a small amount. Therefore, a high-carbohydrate diet is essential for long distance running performance, specifically marathon training. Approximately 60 to 70% of your diet should come from carbohydrates. Good sources are pasta, brown rice, potatoes, cereal, fruit, vegetables and whole grain products. It is important to ingest carbohydrates one to four hours before you run.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    PROTEIN is used to build and repair body tissues including muscles, tendons and ligaments. Contrary to popular belief, protein is not a primary source of energy for long distance runners. Since the body has a limit as to the amount of protein it can ingest, any excess may be converted to fat. Only 12 to 15% of your diet should come from protein. Lean beef, chicken, turkey, fish, low fat cheese, eggs, beans, nuts and tofu are all good sources of protein. For more effective recovery, eat a small amount of protein (along with your carbohydrate) after you run.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    FAT is an energy source that insulates the body against cold and cushions vital organs. Because it exits the stomach slowly it may cause cramping, so it is best not to consume too much prior to your run. Fat burns most efficiently when combined with carbohydrates. There are three kinds of fat. Saturated fats include butter, hydrogenated oils, coconut oil and palm oil. Polyunsaturated fats include corn oil, soybean oil and margarine. Monounsaturated fats include olive oil, canola oil and peanut oil and are the preferred fat. Peanut butter is a good source of monounsaturated fat. Approximately 20 to 25% of your diet should come from fat, with only 10% of it coming from saturated fat.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    VITAMINS AND MINERALS do not provide energy directly. However, they are essential nutrients involved in energy-producing reactions in the body. If your diet is well balanced, you should receive all the necessary vitamins and minerals. Although there is no scientific evidence that supplements will improve athletic performance, some may be helpful when training for a long distance event or marathon. Iron supplements may be required for women who menstruate or for athletes who are anemic. Fish, legumes and dark, green leafy vegetables are good iron sources. Calcium is necessary for bone formation. Non-fat and low-fat dairy products such as yogurt, milk and cheese are recommended. Electrolytes (salts) such as sodium, potassium and magnesium are necessary for maintaining fluid balance, blood volume and nerve transmission.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    • VITAMINA C

    • SE ENCUENTRA EN FRUTAS Y VERDURAS FRESCAS

    • FUNCIONES

    • ANTIOXIDANTE

    • AUMENTA LAS DEFENSAS

    • MEJORA LA CONSISTENCIA DE HUESOS Y DIENTES

    • FORTALECE PAREDES DE ARTERIAS

    • FAVORECE ABSORCION DE HIERRO

    • VITAMINA C (g/100g)

    • PAN 0.00

    • MELON 16.00

    • LECHUGA 24.00

    • NARANJA 53.20

    • GUAYABA184.00

    • PIMIENTO190.00


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    WATER is the most important nutrient for runners. The body is made up of 65% water that must be replaced to maintain proper body temperature. Keep in mind that thirst is not an indicator of dehydration. Once you feel thirsty, you are already dehydrated. Get into the habit of drinking water all day long. Also, check the color of your urine. It should be light and clear. A darker color indicates dehydration. Avoid carbonated drinks that can cause stomach distress and limit alcohol and caffeine since they are diuretics and contribute to fluid loss. If you weigh yourself before and after you run, you will know how much fluid you have lost. For every pound of body weight lost, drink 16 ounces of fluid.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    Pre-run

    Consume 25-50g of carbs 1-2 hours before exercise. Try an energy bar, toast, bowl of cereal, bagel, or a banana. Avoid foods that are likely to upset your stomach and bowel such as: greasy foods, high-fiber foods, high protein foods, and caffinated drinks. Drink 8-16 oz. of water or combine with the above in a carbohydrate drink.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    During run

    Consume 25g of carbs for every 45 minutes of exercise. Go for a gel pack or sports bar and remember to wash them down with water. Gel packs typically contain 25-30 grams and are easy to digest. Drink 4-8 oz. water or diluted sports drink for every 15 minutes of exercise. The consumption of sports drinks and carbohydrates during most runs reduces the stress on your body and improves your post-run recovery.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

    Post-run

    Consume 25-50g carbs immediately after exercising. This can be a combination of food and drink.

    Drink 16 oz. of water for every pound lost during exercise and continue to drink water throughout the day. Consume another 25-50g carbs 30 minutes after exercise. One hour after running consume 50-100g of carbs and 20-40g of protein. This is a great time to eat a well balanced, sit-down meal. Chicken and tuna are great sources of protein. Consume 50-100g of carbs per hour and 20-40g of protein every 2 hours. Continue to do this for 6 hours after your run. You will find that by following this sports nutrition routine, especially on your long run days, you'll feel refreshed rather than exhausted after your workout.


    Nutricion y deporte m c jesus javier luna alcantara ifal universidad de la habana cuba

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