International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance
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International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance. What can be learned from higher education ? By Michaela Martin. Structure of this presentation. Global trends in higher education New forms of mobility Quality assurance as a global movement International cooperation in QA

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International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance

International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance

What can be learned from

higher education ?

By Michaela Martin


Structure of this presentation

Structure of this presentation

  • Global trends in higher education

  • New forms of mobility

  • Quality assurance as a global movement

  • International cooperation in QA

  • Bologna process as model for regional cooperation


1 global trends in higher education

1.Global trends in higher education

  • Increasing student numbers

  • Diversification of higher education provision

  • Privatisation

  • Growing levels of international mobility

    • Of students

    • Of programmes

    • Of institutions


International cooperation in recognition and quality assurance

Growth of tertiary students worldwide since 1991


Mobility of students 1975 to 2004

Mobility of students 1975 to 2004

Source: UNESCO, 2006


Privatization

Privatization

  • Public provision does not meet demand

  • Asia : some countries more than 80 % of enrolments in private sector

  • Africa : private provision is expanding rapidly

  • Private higher education market ($300 billion world wide on current expenditure alone (IFC)

  • Growth of cross-border higher education


New forms of mobility 1

New forms of mobility (1)

  • Programme mobility

    • Joint study programmes

    • Franchized programmes

    • Double degree

    • Articulation

    • Validation


New forms of mobility 2

New forms of mobility (2)

  • Institutional

    • Branch campuses

    • Independent institutions

    • Acquisition/mergers

    • Affiliation/networks

    • Virtual university


The consequence is

The consequence is :

more complex and diversified higher education systems

loss of control of public authorities over parts of the HE system

more potential for academic fraud

credential evaluation more complex

increasing need for international collaboration in recognition and quality assurance


Within this context

Within this context ….

Some 70 countries worldwide have put in place external quality assurance mechanisms

They respond to domestic concerns needs while trying to establish international comparability

Major concern also with strengthening internal quality assurance mechanisms


Eqa covers different realities

EQA covers different realities

  • Quality audit

  • Quality assessment

  • Accreditation

    Concepts are loosely used by agencies in reality

    Accreditation is becoming the most common mechanism of EQA


Justification for accreditation

Justification for accreditation

  • Maintain required standards

  • Guarantee qualifications awarded

  • Mechanism for quality enhancement

  • Readability of higher education provision

  • Portability of credentials (nat/int)


Convergence of accreditation process

Convergence of accreditation process

  • Basic process elements

    • Self-study

    • Site visit/peer review

    • Reporting

      thorough, however time-consuming and costly process


Areas for assessment

Areas for assessment

  • Integrity and mission

  • Governance and management

  • Human resources

  • Learning resources and infrastructure

  • Financial management

  • Student profile and support services

  • Curricular aspects

  • Teaching-learning and evaluation

  • Research, consultancy and extension

  • Internal Quality assurance system


Explaining convergence

Explaining convergence

Basic model for accreditation process stems from the US experience

Importance of international and regional networks

International co-operation and aid


International collaboration in quality assurance

International collaboration in quality assurance

  • As part of its work in recognition, UNESCO has established Global Forum on QA in 2003

  • INQAAHE

  • Regional networks : ENQA, RIACES, APQN, CANTATE, AfriQua, etc

    • Exchange of experience

    • Codes of good practices for QA process

    • Capacity development (GIQAC)


Ex european region

Ex : European region

  • Context : European Integration within the European Union

  • Bologna process : creation of a European HE space by 2015

  • Common qualifications structure

  • ECTS system

    • Facilitate student mobility

    • Based on student workload and LOs

    • 60 credits per year equivalent to 1500 to 1800 hours


Ex european region1

Ex European region

  • Diploma supplement

    • Standardized description of nature, level, context content and status of a study programme

    • Including information on qualification holder, qualification, national higher education system

  • Quality assurance : one of the pillars of cooperation

  • ENQA : Guidelines for QA

  • Creation of a register of quality assurance agencies


Ex africa

Ex : Africa

  • Africa is following the Bologna process

  • WAEMU and CAEMC (CEMAC) adopted directives to adopt bachelors-master’s-PhD structure

  • SADECC region has decided to establish a regional qualifications framework

  • African Union intends the creation of an African higher education space through harmonization of qualification structure

  • Strengthening of quality assurance systems (AfriQua)

  • Vision : creation of an African Qualifications Framework


Conclusions

Conclusions

  • Increased levels of student mobility push the need for strengthened mechanisms of recognition of HE credentials

  • Cross-border higher education creates strong pressure for the development of national QA systems

  • Regional integration processes provide a political framework for co-operation on QA and recognition

  • UNESCO plays an important role at the global level


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