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I. Introduction to Acids & Bases PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Acids & Bases. I. Introduction to Acids & Bases. electrolytes  electrolytes. A. Properties. ACIDS. BASES. bitter taste. sour taste. turn litmus red. turn litmus blue. react with metals to form H 2 gas. slippery feel. vinegar, milk, soda, apples, citrus fruits.

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I. Introduction to Acids & Bases

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Acids bases

Acids & Bases

I. Introduction toAcids & Bases


A properties

electrolyteselectrolytes

A. Properties

ACIDS

BASES

  • bitter taste

  • sour taste

  • turn litmus red

  • turn litmus blue

  • react with metals to form H2 gas

  • slippery feel

  • vinegar, milk, soda, apples, citrus fruits

  • ammonia, lye, antacid, baking soda

ChemASAP


B definitions

H

H

+

O

O

Cl

Cl

H

H

H

H

B. Definitions

Acidsform hydronium ions (H3O+)

HCl+ H2O  H3O+ + Cl–

acid


B definitions1

H

H

+

N

O

O

N

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

B. Definitions

  • Bases form hydroxide ions (OH-)

NH3+ H2O  NH4+ + OH-

base


B definitions2

B. Definitions

  • Amphoteric - can be an acid or a base.

  • MonoproticAcid – can donate only one proton (H+) per molecule.

  • Examples: HCl, HNO3

  • Polyprotic Acid – can donate more than one proton (H+) per molecule.

    • Example: H2SO4 (diprotic)

    • H3PO4 (triprotic)


C strength

-

+

C. Strength

  • Strong Acid/Base

    • 100% ionized in water

    • strong electrolyte

HCl

HNO3

H2SO4

HBr

HI

HClO4

NaOH

KOH

Ca(OH)2

Ba(OH)2


C strength1

-

+

C. Strength

  • Weak Acid/Base

    • does not ionize completely

    • weak electrolyte

HF

CH3COOH

H3PO4

H2CO3

HCN

NH3


E neutralization reactions

E. Neutralization Reactions

Strong acid + Strong base  Salt + Water

Ex. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq)+ H2O


Acids bases1

Acids & Bases

II. Aqueous Solutions and the Concept of pH


A self ionization of water

H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-

A. Self-Ionization of Water

Water molecules produce a hydronium ion and

a hydroxide ion by transfer of a proton.


B neutral acidic and basic solutions

B. Neutral, Acidic, and Basic Solutions

  • Any solution in which [H3O+] = [OH-] isneutral.

  • Any solution in which [H3O+] > [OH-] isacidic.

  • Any solution in which [H3O+] < [OH-] is basic.


C the ph scale

pouvoir hydrogène (Fr.)

“hydrogen power”

C. The pH Scale

14

0

7

INCREASING

BASICITY

INCREASING

ACIDITY

NEUTRAL

pH = -log[H3O+]


C the ph scale1

C. The pH Scale

pH of Common Substances


C the ph scale2

C. The pH Scale

pH = -log[H3O+]

pOH = -log[OH-]

pH + pOH = 14


I introduction to acids bases

pH

  • pH = -log [H+]

    • [H+] = 10-pH

  • pOH = -log [OH-]

  • pH + pOH = 14


Calculations with ph

Calculations with pH

Q: What is the pH if [H+]= 6.3 x 10–5?

pH = –log [H+]

‘(-)’, ‘log’, ‘6.3’, ‘EE’, ‘(-)’, ‘5’, ‘)”, ‘ENTER’)

Ans: 4.2

Q: What is the [H+] if pH = 7.4?

[H+] = 10–pH mol/L

(’10x’, ‘(-)’, ‘7.4’, “)” ‘ENTER‘)

3.98x10–8 M


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