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WELCOME TO OUR PRESENTATION. Presented by 1.Tahniyat Sultana Prova 16-017 2.Tanvir Ahmed 16-009 3.Morium Akhter 16-002 4.Sanjida Islam Khan 16-018 5.Md.Farhadul Islam 16-066. TOPIC :. B ank Structure And Regulation In The USA. Background.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

WELCOME

TO

OUR

PRESENTATION

slide2

Presented by

1.Tahniyat Sultana Prova 16-017

2.Tanvir Ahmed 16-009

3.Morium Akhter 16-002

4.Sanjida Islam Khan 16-018

5.Md.Farhadul Islam 16-066

topic
TOPIC :

Bank Structure And Regulation In The USA

background
Background
  • Central bank & supervisory functions have evolved to create US banking & financial structure.

Uniqueness:

  • far more inclined to seek statutory remedies
  • Protection of small depositors
  • Potential collusion among banks and between banks

Striking feature:

Large number of banks

slide5
Community bank-having assets less than $1 billion
  • Regional or super banks-having assets in excess $1 billion
  • Credit union- owned by members (employees, police & fire associations)
  • Insurance firms and finance companies- consisting sales finance firms, personal credit firms.
central bank
Central Bank:
  • Federal Reserve Act,1913
  • The act allowed the FSB to provide an “elastic” currency
  • Adjusted it requirements in 1934
  • Encourage “oligopolistic” banking
  • Federal Reserve System - one of several regulators
  • Must obtain a state charter granted by superintendent of Banks
  • Cost of FRS – bank examination
bank scoring
Bank Scoring
  • Evaluates banks from the CAMEL score system:
  • C : capital adequacy
  • A : asset quality
  • M : management quality
  • E : earnings performance
  • L : liquidity
  • Bank scoring 1-2 are satisfactory
  • Bank scoring between 3-5 need additional supervision
  • Bank scoring 4/5 are closly monitored
some obligation
Some obligation
  • Member bank of FRS must meet a 1 tier capita asset or leverage ratio of at least 5%

Leverage ration:

= Tier 1 capital (equity capital+long term funds) Total asset

State supervisors:

  • The state of New York Banking Department
  • The different regional banks.etc
commercial and investment banking
Commercial and investment banking
  • The Glass Steagall Act,separated commercial and investment banking in 1933

Commercial bank:

Severly curtailed to underwriting anddealing in municipal govt. debt.

Investment bank:

engage in securities and underwriting but prohibited from taking deposit.

  • Prevented the possibility of collusion between bank and customer.
bank holding companies
Bank Holding Companies
  • Until the 1960s, Bank holding companies were controlling about 15% of total bank deposits.
  • By the 1990s, 92%of banks were owned by BHCs.
  • Only pure owned banking subsidiaries were required to conform to banking regulations.
the bank holding company act 1956
The Bank Holding Company Act,1956
  • Defined a BHC as any firm holding at least 25% of the voting stock of a bank subsidiary
  • Required BHCs to be registered with the Federal Reserve.
  • By granting BHCs legal status, it encouraged their growth.
  • BHCs could circumvent the interstate branching laws via ‘multi-bank’ holding companies.
federal reserve activities on bhcs
Federal reserve activities on BHCs
  • Tried to limit BHCs to offering banking product and engaging in non-banking financial activities.
  • In 1987, the Federal allowed BHCs to create section 20 subsidiaries .
financial holding companies
Financial Holding Companies
  • Under the GBL Act, US bank holding companies can convert into Financial Holding Companies.
  • Supervision of the FHCs is functional ;
          • Insurance firms-department of Trade & Industry
          • Investment bank-Securities & Exchange Commission
          • Banking Subsidiaries-Federal reserve Bank.
slide14

FHCs fall into the restricted universal category, and the restrictions are-

  • As , subsidiaries , they must be separately capitalized.
  • The cross-share ownership of non-financial firms is largely prohibited.
  • In the USA, BHC/FHCs may not own more than 5% of a commercial concern.
  • A bank can sell but may not underwrite insurance
branch banking regulation
Branch Banking Regulation
  • Since 1933 legislation means the regulation of branching was largely a matter for individual states and as result each state had different degrees of restriction.
  • BHCs might establish bank subsidiaries in each states which has to be separately capitalized.
  • In the US a customer with an account at the subsidiary of a BHC in one state can not bank at another subsidiary of the same BHC
slide16

Riegle neal interstate banking & branching efficiency Act-

  • The Act allowed all US banks to acquire bank in other states from September 1995.
  • Any out of state bank taken over by another bank can be converted into branch
slide17

The Fed has a final say over interstate bank acquisition-

  • To prevent excessive concentration BHC & FHC may not hold more than 30% of total deposits in any given state and 10% nationally.
  • Branching across states comes just when bank in other countries are cutting back on bank branches.
deposit insurance
Deposit Insurance
  • It is an important of US system since the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation was set up.
  • The FDIC was created to protect small depositors from ever experiencing the losses.
  • 99% of US bank representeting 99.8% of deposits.
  • A system of 100% deposit insurance is the only way to stop banks being threatened from run by depositors.
slide19

in 1991, FDIC improvement Act was passed by congress to reform the rule of FDIC.

  • The Act requires the FDIC to take prompt corrective action should a bank fail to meet the criteria for being well capitalized.
regulation of foreign banks
Regulation of Foreign Banks
  • The International Banking Act(1978):
      • Eliminated difference between domestic & foreign bank
      • Banks are bound by
          • McFadden
          • Bank Holding Company
          • Glass Steagall acts
      • Foreign Bank branches and agencies were to be regulated by Fed
regulation of foreign banks1
Regulation of foreign Banks
  • Foreign subsidiaries could apply for a federal charter ,which give them access to
      • Discount window,
      • Cheque collection &
      • clearing
  • Reserve requirements imposed on all federal & state licensed foreign bank branches & agencies
      • A parent with more than $1 billion in international assets
the foreign bank enforcement supervision act 1991
The Foreign bank Enforcement Supervision Act(1991)
  • To establish uniform federal standards for entry & expansion of foreign banks in USA
  • Ensure that foreign bank operation are regulated, supervised & examined in the same way as US banks
  • Gave the Fed the right to close any foreign bank
      • which violates US laws
      • Or if bank’s home country regulation is deemed inadequate
today s regulation of foreign banks in us
Today’s Regulation of foreign banks in Us
  • Us banking activities are regulated by the Federal Reserve
  • Us banks require to seek permission to open foreign branches
  • Edge act corporations in financial activities like
      • Leasing
      • Trust business
      • Insurance
      • Data processing
      • Securities & dealing in money market funds
national banking structure in us
National banking Structure in Us
  • Tiring to regulate bank interest rate
  • Rapidly change technology and financial Innovation.
  • Domestic banks provided the foreign country applies the principle of equal treatment.
  • More Important, the RN branching(1994)and GLB financial Modernization act.
  • Few barriers to prevent the development of a nation wide banking system
slide25

Thanks

for

being with Us

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