Chapter 43
Download
1 / 37

Chapter 43 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 168 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 43. Anatomy of the Urinary System. Functions of the kidney. Excretory Keeps the electrolyte balance Keeps the acid-base balance Keeps the water balance. Gross anatomy . Kidney The right kidney is in a lower position than the left.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Chapter 43' - caraf


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Chapter 43

Chapter 43

Anatomy of the Urinary System


Functions of the kidney
Functions of the kidney

  • Excretory

  • Keeps the electrolyte balance

  • Keeps the acid-base balance

  • Keeps the water balance


Gross anatomy
Gross anatomy

  • Kidney

  • The right kidney is in a lower position than the left.

  • Located at the superior lumbar region of the dorsal body wall

  • Hilus

    • Renal artery, vein and ureter



Gross anatomy1
Gross anatomy

  • Capsules

  • They hold the kidney in place and also protect them

    • Adipose capsule

    • Fibrous capsule


Gross anatomy2
Gross anatomy

  • Cortex

    • Superficial kidney region immediate bellow the capsule

    • Light color

  • Medulla

    • Darker color

    • Deep to the cortex


Gross anatomy3
Gross anatomy

  • Medullary pyramids

    • Base

    • Papilla or apex

  • Renal columns

    • Cortical tissue between the pyramids

  • Minor calyces

  • Major calyces


  • Gross anatomy4
    Gross anatomy

    • Renal pelvis

      • Cavity formed by the joining of the major calyces and is continuous with the ureter

    • Blood flow to the kidneys

      • Aorta

      • Renal arteries

      • Segmental arteries (5 branches)

      • Interlobar arteries


    Gross anatomy5
    Gross anatomy

    • Arcuate arteries

    • Interlobular arteries

    • Afferent arterioles

      • Supply the nephron

    • Glomerulus (capillaries)

    • Efferent arterioles


    Gross anatomy6
    Gross anatomy

    • Peritubular capillaries

    • Interlobular veins

    • Arcuate veins

    • Interlobar veins

    • Renal veins

    • Inferior vena cava

      • There is no segmental veins


    Gross anatomy7
    Gross anatomy

    • Ureters

      • Drain urine from the kidney to thebladder

    • Bladder

      • Trigone

        • 2 ureteral orifices

        • 1 urethral orifice


    Gross anatomy8
    Gross anatomy

    • Detrusor muscle

    • Rugae

  • Parietal peritoneum


  • Gross anatomy9
    Gross anatomy

    • Urethra

      • Drains urine from the bladder

      • Males

        • Belongs to the urinary and reproductive systems

        • Prostatic, membranous, penile or spongy

      • Female

        • Belong to the urinary system only



    Gross anatomy10
    Gross anatomy

    • Internal urethral sphincter

      • Smooth muscle

      • Superior to the external one

    • External urethral sphincter

      • Skeletal muscle

      • Inferior to the internal one


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Nephrons

      • Functional unit of the kidneys

      • Formed by:

        1) Glomerulus

        • Glomerular capsule or Bowman’s capsule

          • Visceral layer with podocytes cells that interdigitate with each other and cling to the endothelial cells. Pedicels


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney1
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Capsular space

    • Parietal layer

  • Renal corpuscle

    • Glomerulus + Bowman's capsule

      2) Renal tubules

  • Proximal convoluted tubules (PCT)

    • Simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli


  • Microscopic anatomy of the kidney2
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Loop of Henle

      • Descending loop

        • Thick filament

        • Thin filament with simple squamous epithelium and small number of microvilli


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney3
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Ascending loop

      • Thick filament

      • Thin filament - simple squamous epithelium

  • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

    • Simple cuboidal epithelium


  • Microscopic anatomy of the kidney4
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Collecting ducts

      • Receives urine from many nephrons

      • Run through the medullary pyramids

    • Papillary ducts

      • Collect urine from the collecting ducts

      • Empty the urine into the minor calyces


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney5
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Types of nephrons

      • Cortical

        • Located within the renal cortex

      • Juxtamedullary

        • Locted at the cortex-medulla junction

        • Loops of Henle penetrate the medulla



    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney6
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Renal circulation for the nephron

      • Glomerular capillaries

        • It produces the filtrate

        • It is a high hydrostatic pressure capillary bed because:

          • It is fed by 2 arterioles

          • The afferent arterioles is larger than the efferent


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney7
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Peritubular capillary bed

      • Low pressure capillaries

      • Porous walls

      • Absorbs contents of the filtrate


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney8
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • In the cortical nephrons the efferent arterioles will form the peritubular capillaries. From there the blood will flow to the vein system


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney9
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • In the juxtamedullary nephrons, the peritubular capillaries descend immediately into the medulla and give rise to the vasa recta. They run parallel to the loop of Henle and from there the blood will flow to the vein system


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney10
    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)

      • Macula densa

        • Specialized epithelial cells of the DCT

      • Juxtaglomerular cells

        • Specialized smooth muscle cells of the wall of the arterioles



    Urine formation
    Urine formation

    • Filtration

      • Filtrate is forming by the passage of fluid from the afferent arteriole to the Bowman’s capsule

    • Reabsorption

      • Occurs mainly in the PCT

      • It is passive for water

      • It is active for many substances


    Urine formation1
    Urine formation

    • Secretion

      • Substances pass from the tubular cells or from the blood to the tubular lumen

      • It happens mainly on the DCT


    Bladder
    Bladder

    • For urine storage

    • Micturition or voiding

    • Mechanism of micturition

      • Urine is collected until it reaches 200 ml

      • Stretching of the bladder wall

      • Activation of the stretching receptors

      • Impulse is sent through the parasympathetic fibers


    Bladder1
    Bladder

    • Impulse reaches the CNS

    • CNS sends motor command for the bladder to contract

    • Relaxation of the internal sphincter

    • Urine passes to the posterior portion of the urethra

    • Voiding or not (voluntary action)


    Bladder2
    Bladder

    • Incontinence

      • Lack of voluntary control of the external urethral sphincter

    • Microscopy

      • Transitional epithelium

      • Detrusor muscle

        • Inner longitudinal layer

        • Central circular layer

        • Outer longitudinal layer


    Kidney dissection
    Kidney dissection

    • Whole kidney

      • Hylus

      • Capsule: fibrous and fat


    Kidney dissection1
    Kidney dissection

    • Frontal cut

      • Cortex

      • Medulla

        • Pyramids

          • Papilla

      • Columns

      • Calyces: major, minor

      • Pelvis


    Cat dissection
    Cat Dissection

    • Urinary System

    • Kidneys

    • Ureters

    • Bladder

    • Urethra


    ad