Chapter 43
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 37

Chapter 43 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 127 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Chapter 43. Anatomy of the Urinary System. Functions of the kidney. Excretory Keeps the electrolyte balance Keeps the acid-base balance Keeps the water balance. Gross anatomy . Kidney The right kidney is in a lower position than the left.

Download Presentation

Chapter 43

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Chapter 43

Chapter 43

Anatomy of the Urinary System


Functions of the kidney

Functions of the kidney

  • Excretory

  • Keeps the electrolyte balance

  • Keeps the acid-base balance

  • Keeps the water balance


Gross anatomy

Gross anatomy

  • Kidney

  • The right kidney is in a lower position than the left.

  • Located at the superior lumbar region of the dorsal body wall

  • Hilus

    • Renal artery, vein and ureter


Chapter 43

Figure 25.3


Gross anatomy1

Gross anatomy

  • Capsules

  • They hold the kidney in place and also protect them

    • Adipose capsule

    • Fibrous capsule


Gross anatomy2

Gross anatomy

  • Cortex

    • Superficial kidney region immediate bellow the capsule

    • Light color

  • Medulla

    • Darker color

    • Deep to the cortex


Gross anatomy3

Gross anatomy

  • Medullary pyramids

    • Base

    • Papilla or apex

  • Renal columns

    • Cortical tissue between the pyramids

  • Minor calyces

  • Major calyces


  • Gross anatomy4

    Gross anatomy

    • Renal pelvis

      • Cavity formed by the joining of the major calyces and is continuous with the ureter

    • Blood flow to the kidneys

      • Aorta

      • Renal arteries

      • Segmental arteries (5 branches)

      • Interlobar arteries


    Gross anatomy5

    Gross anatomy

    • Arcuate arteries

    • Interlobular arteries

    • Afferent arterioles

      • Supply the nephron

    • Glomerulus (capillaries)

    • Efferent arterioles


    Gross anatomy6

    Gross anatomy

    • Peritubular capillaries

    • Interlobular veins

    • Arcuate veins

    • Interlobar veins

    • Renal veins

    • Inferior vena cava

      • There is no segmental veins


    Gross anatomy7

    Gross anatomy

    • Ureters

      • Drain urine from the kidney to thebladder

    • Bladder

      • Trigone

        • 2 ureteral orifices

        • 1 urethral orifice


    Gross anatomy8

    Gross anatomy

    • Detrusor muscle

    • Rugae

  • Parietal peritoneum


  • Gross anatomy9

    Gross anatomy

    • Urethra

      • Drains urine from the bladder

      • Males

        • Belongs to the urinary and reproductive systems

        • Prostatic, membranous, penile or spongy

      • Female

        • Belong to the urinary system only


    Chapter 43

    Figure 25.18a


    Gross anatomy10

    Gross anatomy

    • Internal urethral sphincter

      • Smooth muscle

      • Superior to the external one

    • External urethral sphincter

      • Skeletal muscle

      • Inferior to the internal one


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Nephrons

      • Functional unit of the kidneys

      • Formed by:

        1) Glomerulus

        • Glomerular capsule or Bowman’s capsule

          • Visceral layer with podocytes cells that interdigitate with each other and cling to the endothelial cells. Pedicels


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney1

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Capsular space

    • Parietal layer

  • Renal corpuscle

    • Glomerulus + Bowman's capsule

      2) Renal tubules

  • Proximal convoluted tubules (PCT)

    • Simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli


  • Microscopic anatomy of the kidney2

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Loop of Henle

      • Descending loop

        • Thick filament

        • Thin filament with simple squamous epithelium and small number of microvilli


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney3

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Ascending loop

      • Thick filament

      • Thin filament - simple squamous epithelium

  • Distal convoluted tubule (DCT)

    • Simple cuboidal epithelium


  • Microscopic anatomy of the kidney4

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Collecting ducts

      • Receives urine from many nephrons

      • Run through the medullary pyramids

    • Papillary ducts

      • Collect urine from the collecting ducts

      • Empty the urine into the minor calyces


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney5

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Types of nephrons

      • Cortical

        • Located within the renal cortex

      • Juxtamedullary

        • Locted at the cortex-medulla junction

        • Loops of Henle penetrate the medulla


    Chapter 43

    Figure 25.5a


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney6

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Renal circulation for the nephron

      • Glomerular capillaries

        • It produces the filtrate

        • It is a high hydrostatic pressure capillary bed because:

          • It is fed by 2 arterioles

          • The afferent arterioles is larger than the efferent


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney7

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Peritubular capillary bed

      • Low pressure capillaries

      • Porous walls

      • Absorbs contents of the filtrate


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney8

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • In the cortical nephrons the efferent arterioles will form the peritubular capillaries. From there the blood will flow to the vein system


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney9

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • In the juxtamedullary nephrons, the peritubular capillaries descend immediately into the medulla and give rise to the vasa recta. They run parallel to the loop of Henle and from there the blood will flow to the vein system


    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney10

    Microscopic anatomy of the kidney

    • Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA)

      • Macula densa

        • Specialized epithelial cells of the DCT

      • Juxtaglomerular cells

        • Specialized smooth muscle cells of the wall of the arterioles


    Chapter 43

    Figure 25.6


    Urine formation

    Urine formation

    • Filtration

      • Filtrate is forming by the passage of fluid from the afferent arteriole to the Bowman’s capsule

    • Reabsorption

      • Occurs mainly in the PCT

      • It is passive for water

      • It is active for many substances


    Urine formation1

    Urine formation

    • Secretion

      • Substances pass from the tubular cells or from the blood to the tubular lumen

      • It happens mainly on the DCT


    Bladder

    Bladder

    • For urine storage

    • Micturition or voiding

    • Mechanism of micturition

      • Urine is collected until it reaches 200 ml

      • Stretching of the bladder wall

      • Activation of the stretching receptors

      • Impulse is sent through the parasympathetic fibers


    Bladder1

    Bladder

    • Impulse reaches the CNS

    • CNS sends motor command for the bladder to contract

    • Relaxation of the internal sphincter

    • Urine passes to the posterior portion of the urethra

    • Voiding or not (voluntary action)


    Bladder2

    Bladder

    • Incontinence

      • Lack of voluntary control of the external urethral sphincter

    • Microscopy

      • Transitional epithelium

      • Detrusor muscle

        • Inner longitudinal layer

        • Central circular layer

        • Outer longitudinal layer


    Kidney dissection

    Kidney dissection

    • Whole kidney

      • Hylus

      • Capsule: fibrous and fat


    Kidney dissection1

    Kidney dissection

    • Frontal cut

      • Cortex

      • Medulla

        • Pyramids

          • Papilla

      • Columns

      • Calyces: major, minor

      • Pelvis


    Cat dissection

    Cat Dissection

    • Urinary System

    • Kidneys

    • Ureters

    • Bladder

    • Urethra


  • Login