Honors biology chapter 8 review
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Honors Biology CHAPTER 8 REVIEW. “Sex in the Cell City”. ASEXUAL 1 parent Forms identical cells Forms 2 daughter cells. SEXUAL 2 parents Forms different cells Forms 4 daughter cells. #1 Contrast asexual and sexual reproduction:. #2 Compare: Chromatin, Chromosomes, Chromatids. ANSWER.

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Honors Biology CHAPTER 8 REVIEW

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Honors biology chapter 8 review

Honors BiologyCHAPTER 8 REVIEW

“Sex in the Cell City”


1 contrast asexual and sexual reproduction

ASEXUAL

1 parent

Forms identical cells

Forms 2 daughter cells

SEXUAL

2 parents

Forms different cells

Forms 4 daughter cells

#1 Contrast asexual and sexualreproduction:


2 compare chromatin chromosomes chromatids

#2 Compare: Chromatin, Chromosomes, Chromatids


Answer

ANSWER

  • ALL ARE DNA + PROTEIN

  • Chromatin – loose in interphase

  • Chromosomes – dense and coiled in mitosis- connected by a centromere

    Chromatid – condensed - paired with identical sister chromatid


To determine the number of chromosomes count the centromere regions

To determine the number of chromosomes, count the centromere regions

  • There are 3

    chromosomes here

    There are 6

    chromosomes

    here


3 what do you call

#3 What do you call…

  • A fertilized egg

  • Zygote

  • Fertilization

  • Joining of the egg and sperm


Honors biology chapter 8 review

#4

  • What do you call asexual reproduction in prokaryotes?

  • Binary fission

  • What do you call asexual reproduction in eukaryotes?

  • mitosis


Asexual and sexual repro

Asexual and Sexual Repro

  • How do the chromosome numbers compare before and after reproduction in each?

  • EXAMPLE:If the original cell had 20 chromosomes, how many chromosomes would each cell have after each type of reproduction?


Answer1

ANSWER

  • Sexual Reproduction -resulting cells have half the number of chromosomes

  • (start with 20 – end with 10 chromosomes)

  • Diploid to haploid

  • Asexual Reproduction -resulting cells have the identical number of chromosomes

  • (start and end with 20 chromosomes)

  • Diploid to diploid


5contrast dna in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

#5Contrast DNA in prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  • Shape

  • Size

  • complexity


Answer 5 chromosomes differ in

PROKARYOTES

One Circular chromosome

Smaller (3,000 genes in bacterium)

simpler

EUKARYOTES

Many Long strands of chromosomes

Larger ( 100,000 genes in humans)

More complex

ANSWER #5 Chromosomes differ in…


4 compare the number of genes

#4 Compare the number of genes:

  • Humans to bacteria

  • ANSWER:

  • 100,000 to 3,000


6 put in correct order

6. Put in correct order

  • Telophase

  • Anaphase

  • Metaphase

  • Prophase

  • Prometaphase


6 answer

6. ANSWER

  • P PM M A T

    • Prophase

    • Prometaphase

    • Metaphase

    • Anaphase

    • Telophase


7 how does nuclear membrane change

7. How does nuclear membrane change?

  • In prometaphase

  • dissolves

  • In telophase

  • reforms


8 what is

8. What is…?

  • Cytokinesis

  • Division of the cytoplasm


8 how is cytokinesis different in

PLANT CELLS

ANIMAL CELLS

8. How is cytokinesis different in…


8 answer

PLANT CELLS

Form cell plate

ANIMAL CELLS

Form a cleavage furrow by pinching in the cytoplasm

8. ANSWER


8 continued define

8. (continued) Define:

  • Cell plate

  • Cleavage furrow


8 answer1

Cell plate

In plant cells the cell wall will form

Cleavage Furrow

Pinching of the cytoplasm by actin pulling like a drawstring

8. ANSWER


9 what goes on in each

9. What goes on in each?

  • G1

  • S

  • G2


Answer2

ANSWER

  • G1growsin size, increases organelles

  • S DNA synthesis (replicates)

  • G2 makes centrioles for cell division + growth


What is the purpose of

What is the purpose of…

  • Mitosis?A. make bigger cells

  • B. make exact copies of cells in two daughter cells

  • C. make copies of cells with twice the number of chromosomes

  • D. decrease the number of cells


Answer3

ANSWER

  • B. make exact copies of cells in two daughter cells


10 locate

10. Locate

  • Chromatids

  • Centromeres

  • Asters

  • Centrioles

  • spindles


10 answer

10. ANSWER

Chromatids

Centromeres

asters

Spindles

centrioles


11 spindles

11. Spindles

  • What is the difference between the kinetochore and the non-kinetochore spindles?

  • Kinetochore spindles are attached to the chromatids and shorten

  • Non-kinetochore spindles

    go pole-to-pole and lengthen

    the cell


11 what makes the

11. What makes the…

  • Chromatids move to the poles (centrioles)?

  • Kinetochore spindles shorten and motor proteins power the movement


11 answer

11. ANSWER

  • kinesin motor protein

  • Motor

    Proteins

    (dynein)-use

    ATP to

    grab and move

    the chromatid


12 growth factor

12. Growth Factor

  • Chemical produced outside of the cell to start the cells to begin the cell cycle

  • EX: when you have a cut


12 what is the purpose of a growth factor

12. What is the purpose ofa growth factor?

  • naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth

  • Remember the mice would healing article at the beginning of the year? What did VEGF do? (grape-seed article)

  • Create blood vessels if at an injury site


13 matching

13. MATCHING

1 Cells divide A. anchorage

until reach a definite dependence

limit (other cells, walls)

2 cells need contact B. cancer cells

to grow

3 cells continue to grow C. density-

Uncontrollably dependent

inhibition


13 matching answers

13. MATCHING ANSWERS

1-C Cells divide A. anchorage

until reach a definite dependence

limit (other cells, walls)

2-A cells need contact B. cancer cells

to grow

3-B cells continue to grow C. density-

Uncontrollably dependent

inhibition


14 match the cancers

14. MATCH THE CANCERS

  • A. carcinoma

  • B. sarcoma

  • C. lymphoma

  • D. leukemia

  • E. metastasis

  • 1. spread of cancer cells beyond site

  • 2. cancer from bone marrow

  • 3. cancer from outer skin or linings

  • 4. support tissue cancers (bone, muscle)

  • 5. cancer of lymphatic system


14 match the cancers1

14. MATCH THE CANCERS

  • 3 A. carcinoma

  • 4 B. sarcoma

  • 5 C. lymphoma

  • 2 D. leukemia

  • 1 E. metastasis

  • 1. spread of cancer cells beyond site

  • 2. cancer from bone marrow (makes WBC)

  • 3. cancer from outer skin or linings

  • 4. support tissue cancers (bone, muscle)

  • 5. cancer of lymphatic system


14 match the cancers2

14. MATCH THE CANCERS

  • Benign

  • Malignant

  • tumor

  • 1. tumor growth spread to other tissue

  • 2. abnormal growth but not beyond original site

  • 3. abnormal growth of cells


14 match the cancers3

14. MATCH THE CANCERS

  • 2 Benign

  • 1 Malignant

  • 3 tumor

  • 1. tumor growth spread to other tissue

  • 2. abnormal growth but not beyond original site

  • 3. abnormal growth of cells


15 what is the name of the gene that

15. What is the name of the gene that...

  • Gene that causes breast cancer

  • P27 (on chromosome 12 FYI)

  • Spellchecks DNA for errors and repairs them?

  • p53


17 what is the name of

17. What is the name of…

  • The protein that signals each phase of the cell cycle to start?

  • Cyclins

  • (build up

    and break

    down)


How do cyclins and cdk s work together

How do cyclins and cdk’s work together?

  • Cdk is an enzyme that

    attaches to cyclin to form

    MPF (maturation

    promotion factor) to begin

    that part of the cell

    Cycle

    Phosphate group activates

    with energy


18 how are cancer cells

18. How are cancer cells...

  • Abnormal in the cell cycle?


Answer4

ANSWER

  • Do not have a properly functioning cell cycle control system-grow uncontrollably


18 what body cells

18. What body cells...

  • Divide a lot?

  • Not at all after formed?


18 what cells

Divide a lot

skin

blood

digestive tract

Don’t divide after formed

Nerve (brain)

muscle

18. What cells…


18 what part of the cell cycle

18. What part of the cell cycle…

  • Is when cells that do not divide leave the cell cycle or go to differentiate?

  • G0


19 name the phase of mitosis

Chromatin thickens

nuclear envelope disappears

nuclear envelope reforms

Prophase

prometaphase

telophase

19. Name the Phase of Mitosis


19 name the phase of mitosis1

Centrioles moving to the opposite poles

spindle fibers form

cell plate forms

Prophase

prophase

Telophase/

cytokinesis

19. Name the Phase of Mitosis


19 name the phase of mitosis2

Chromosomes line up at the equator

cytoplasm divides

Metaphase

cytokinesis

19. Name the Phase of Mitosis


Identify the phase of mitosis

anaphase

Identify the Phase of Mitosis


Identify the phase of mitosis1

prophase

Identify the Phase of Mitosis


Identify the phase of mitosis2

telophase

Identify the Phase of Mitosis


Identify the phase of cell cycle

Interphase

Identify the Phase of cell cycle


Identify the phase of mitosis3

prometaphase

Identify the Phase of Mitosis


Identify the phase of mitosis4

Metaphase

Identify the Phase of Mitosis


If given the diploid number what is the haploid number

Diploid

40

24

16

Haploid

20

12

8

If given the diploid number, what is the haploid number?


29 what are gametes

#29 What are gametes?

  • A. autosomes

  • B. female chromosomes

  • C. sex cells

  • D. daughter cells

  • ANSWER: Gametes are sex cells. For Human they are sperm (male) and egg (female)


30 what phase of meiosis

30. What phase of meiosis?


30 what phase of meiosis1

30. What phase of meiosis?

P1

A2

A1

M1

M2

4 daughter cells

P2


30 what phase of meiosis2

30. What phase of meiosis?


30 what phase of meiosis3

30. What phase of meiosis?

  • A-I

  • B. P1 early

  • C.P1 late

  • D. M1

  • E. F. A1

  • G. T1

  • H. Interkinesis

  • I. P2

  • J. M2

  • K. A2

  • L. T2

  • M.4 daughter cells


32 what 3 factors increase genetic variability after meiosis

32. What 3 factors increase genetic variability after meiosis?

  • 1. independent orientation of chromosomes at metaphase I (which chromosome lined up on each side)

  • 2. random fertilization (which sperm joined which egg)

  • 3. crossing over

  • (ALSO MUTATION…coming in next unit)


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