A concept for power cycling the electronics of calice ahcal with the train structure of ilc
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A concept for power cycling the electronics of CALICE-AHCAL with the train structure of ILC. Peter Göttlicher, DESY For CALICE collaboration Chicago , June 11 th , 2011. Outline. Introduction: ILC, ILD, AHCAL for CALICE Motivation for power cycling Building blocks for power cycling

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A concept for power cycling the electronics of calice ahcal with the train structure of ilc

A concept for power cyclingthe electronics of CALICE-AHCAL with the train structure of ILC

Peter Göttlicher, DESY

For CALICE collaboration

Chicago , June 11th, 2011


Outline

Outline

  • Introduction: ILC, ILD, AHCAL for CALICE

  • Motivation for power cycling

  • Building blocks for power cycling

  • Summary


Accelerator and detector for e e

Introduction

Accelerator and Detector for e+e-

ILC: International Linear Collider

e+e- collider with 0.5 -1 TeV

ILD: International Large Detector

e+e- needs precise detectors

Concept:

Particle flow algorithm

Measure showers

of individual particles

e+

Collision point

with detectors

e-

  • Technology:

  • Superdonductingcavitities 1.3 GHz

  • Bunch structure within trains

  • 1ms long trains, 199ms break, ….

  • bunch to bunch 337ns

  • Technology:

  • High granularity calorimeters

  • e.g. CALICE-AHCAL-barrel

  • 4 million readout channels

  • 60 thousand channels per m3

Option:For factor 100

by switching off the

fast analogue electronics for 99.5% of the time

Low power per channel: 40µW/channel can be

reached by power cycling

Need


Ahcal analog hadron calorimeter for ild

Introduction

AHCAL: Analog-Hadron- CALorimeter for ILD

Sampling sandwich with

48 layers each

3 mm scintillator

+ 2.5 mm electronics, infrastructure

+12 mm stainless steel

Scintillator tiles

with SiPM readout

3cm

ASIC’s for

- analogue signals,

- local storage while train

- ADC’s

- data transfer

Plugged to

the back of a

Readout board

12 x 12 tiles

36x36 cm2

Interconnects with

flex foils

for signals,

GND and power

Layer:

composed out of

3 cassettes: 2600 channels

Control electronics

and power

connections

Cassette: 2.2m long structures: 864 channels


Motivation power cycling to avoid active cooling

Motivation

Motivation: Power Cycling to avoid active Cooling

Mechanical design constraint:

- No cooling within calorimeter

to keep homogeneity and simplicity

- Cooling only at service end

  • With

  • - Stainless steel

  • - Long structure

  • Heat

  • Electronics with

  • 1% power cycle

  • 25µW/channel

  • SiPMIdark

  • +15µW/channel

  • Need

  • Power cycling

  • To keep heat up below 0.50C

Solution:

Parabel + Fourier terms

0.3

Z=0m

0.2

0.1

Temperature increase [K]

Z=2.2m

  • Simplified model:

  • No heat transfer radial

  • “bad due to sandwich”

  • Cylindrical symmetry

  • Symmetry at IP-plane

0.0

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

z = Position along beam axis [m]


Building blocks for the power system

Building blocks

Building Blocks for the Power System

DAQ is Optical:

No issue for EMI

1. Planes with

scintillators and SiPM’s,

ASIC’s and PCB’s

4. Power

supply

3. cable

2. End of layer electronics


Asic for fast sipm signals consuming low power

Building blocks

ASIC for fast SiPM Signals consuming Low Power

L. Raux et al., SPIROC Measurement: Silicon Photomultiplier Integrated Readout Chips for ILC, Proc. 2008 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium (NSS08)

  • Functional tasks of the ASIC:

  • Amplify the SiPM signal and generate self trigger

  • Store an identified signal: 16 per train: capacitor pipeline

  • Digitize

  • Multiplexed data transfer even with more ASIC’s

Amp.

Digital data transfer

ADC

0.5%

needed

SiPM

ASIC: SPIROC-2b

RAM

Algorithm for power cycling:

The ASIC switches the current of the functional blocks OFF.

ASIC gets supplied all the time with voltage.

PCB electronics and instruments stabilize the voltage

Bunches from collider (ILC/CLIC): A train every 200ms

>20µs ON

before train

Fast amplifiers: 1ms

Power

ON for:

ADC’s 3.2ms

1µs

Common analogue parts, e.g. DAC’s, C-pipeline

Digital control: 150ms


Asic as current switch

Building blocks

ASICas current switch

Measurements:

- Inductive current probes

Slow: 0.25 – 50MHz

Fast: 30MHz-3GHz

- Setup: ASIC+ capacitors on a PCB

- Expectation is

~ 1mA/channel

~40mA/ASIC, summed over all pins

Measured currents at the GND-supply of ASIC

10mA/pin

GND pin (1 of 2) of ASIC

Slow probe

Tantal capacitor

High pass of probe

Expected waveform,

Amplitude is arb. units.

0 200 400 600 [ns]

time

30mA/pin

GND pin (1 of 2) of ASIC

Fast probe

Voltage pin (1 of 3) for preamplifier

  • System has to deal with:

  • EMI: electromagnetic interference

  • 5Hz from train repetition to few 100MHz

  • 2.2A for a layer, 3.4kA for AHCAL-barrel

-20 0 20 40 60 [ns]

time


Electro magnetic interference in a p ower c ycled s ystem

Building blocks

Electro Magnetic Interference in a Power Cycled System

  • Reference ground:

  • Need good definition

  • Any induced/applied current produces voltage drops

  • Separation between reference / power return / safety

  • or controlling currents

  • and keeping currents within “own” volume and instrumentation

return

reference

Safety. PE

  • Current loops

  • To do:

  • Controlling return currents

  • Keeping loops small

  • Avoid overlapping with

  • foreign components.

  • Capacitive coupling

  • To do:

  • Keep common mode voltage stable

  • Guide induces currents to source

  • Keep GND-reference closer

  • than foreigns

Guideline: Avoiding emission avoids in most cases picking up of noise


Keeping the high frequencies local

Building blocks

Keeping the high Frequencies local

Simulation model:

“two diomensional delay line”

36 x 36 cm PCB

with scintillators, SiPM’s LED

144mA switched current

Part of a thin cassette between absorber layer of HCAL

1cm x 1cm

Layer structure of PCB:

GND

d PCB=

50-60µm

Vsupply

GND

Capacitor well known:

One-dimensional delay well known

Inductivity:

  • By that one get

  • a thin PCB and also

  • A good high frequency capacitor 60pF/cm2

  • Layout with short distance to via maintain the performance.


Voltage for asic stabilized by local discrete capacitors

Building blocks

Voltage for ASIC stabilized by local discrete Capacitors

Capacitors mounted to the 36x36cm2 PCB

Simulation of voltage induced by current

ASIC is supported over

wide frequency range

with Z< 0.1W

144mA generates <20mV

Oscillations are dumped

for wide frequency range

with phase ¹ ±900

Trust in simulation:

- <1.5GHz=(1/10) granularity

- No resistive behavior of ASIC

is included. That over estimates

the resonances at high frequencies

Result:

- Locally good for > 10kHz

- Additional effort < 10kHz

100 W

Ceramics X7R

10 W

Murata, 100nf

Murata, 1nf

Murata, 10nf

Tantal, AVX, 33µF

Murata, 2.2nf

PCB, alone

1 W

Impedance Z=|U|/|I|

0.1 W

Total:

12 Tantal/4 ASIC’s

+ 17 ceramics

+ PCB

00.1 W

900

Coil like

U to I phase shift

00

Capacitor like

-900

1GHz

1MHz

1kHz

Frequency

PCB-layer

Tantal

Dominated by:

ceramic


Low frequency charge storage for 10khz

Building blocks

Low frequency charge storage for < 10kHz

At end of layer,

there is a bit of

- space

- cooling

C2

C3

Concept:

- Charge for the train stored in a capacitor C2

- Voltage drop allowed ~ 0.6V

- Fast voltage regulator

- Charge for faster reaction is within the

distributed capacitors + C3

C2 = 3.4mF bank of few Tantal

a voltage regulator with external FET > 2A

C3+distributed = 2mF


Voltage at asic measurement

Building blocks

Voltage at ASIC: Measurement

Reduced test setup: Control board, 1 interconnect, 1 board

Definition of GND-point:

- good for keeping

sensitive SiPM’s stable

- single connection

to reduce currents in GNDPE system

2m2/Layer

1.3mm distance

Stainless

steel

absorber

= GNDPE

C=13nF

GNDelectronics

Voltage step:

- Measured 4mV, 400ns

- Extrapolate to full system

< 80mV at far end

OK for operation,

over-,undervoltage, time, …

Induces current into GNDPE, if step is on GNDelectronics

< 2 mA per layer

4mV

Default setup

Supplyvoltage of ASIC (AC-component)

[mV]

Tantal moved to control board

Power on

Command,

step in IASIC

Tantal taken away

Control electronics

for layer

Time [ns]

Þ

OK, even with extrapolation to 1500 layers low?

Investigations of reason and improvements possible,

to be watched


Integrating to infrastructure

Building blocks

Integrating to Infrastructure

70pF/m

from cable

to support

ASIC

as

switched

current sink

  • Impact of cable

  • is a combination of choises:

  • Input filter: R=10W, C=1mF

  • reasonable mechanical size

  • EMI better t=100ms

  • Power supply behavior

  • here neglected capacitance

  • to PE, might be 2 order of

  • magnitude larger than cable!

  • Here: ideal V-source

  • Mechanical integration and galvanic isolation

  • per (group or) layer

  • and pair of wires for it

50m cable, 1mm2, on a cable support

Current induced into GNDPE

nA

0

-40

-80

-120

-160

Current per layer

Simulation of cable

0 1 2 3 4 5 [ms] 6

time

With 1500 layers of AHCAL: IPE=120mA

Really small, but not including all parasitics!

Don’t be too reluctant in EMI-rules


Current in s upply c able

Building blocks

Current in Supply Cable

Reduced test setup: Control board, 1 interconnect, 1 board,

Short cable to laboratory supply

Preamplifiers ON

ADC’s ON

Work bench settings

Without input filter

with input filter t=10ms

Current per 1/18 layer in supply cable [mA]

Input filter important to

lower amplitude fluctuations

and remaining frequencies within cable

Inportant: EMI-crosstalk to others

Frequencies are low

Electronics like to have larger t

to smoothen further Û

Mechanics easier in service-hall

Control electronics

for layer


Summary

Summary

  • Detectors for Linear Colliders requires many channels with low power

  • Train structure allows 99% time to be OFF: Factor 100 in critical regions

  • Coherent fast switching ON/OFF of high current:

    CALICE-AHCAL: 2.2A*layers : 3.4kA for the barrel

    5Hz to few 100MHz

  • System aspects at local design

    - Local defined return-pathes for current

    - Local charge storage for wide frequency range

    that keeps

    - the impedance small

    - the currents leaving a defined volume small with slow rise times

  • System aspects within the infrastructure

    Lower frequency part handled by cables and power supply

    Good integration of power supplies and cables.

  • Simulation leaves many parasitic effects out

    Underestimates the high frequency EMI-disturbance

    …. Experiments, concepts to be better than simulation promises

  • Experimental setups and integration into ILD to be continued


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