Nomenclature
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Nomenclature. CHEM 140. Metals With One Oxidation State. Na + : sodium Mg 2+ : magnesium Al 3+ : aluminum aluminum chloride: AlCl 3. Transition Metals. Have more than one oxidation state Fe 2+ : iron(II) Fe 3+ : iron(III) Iron(II) sulfide: FeS Iron(III) oxide: Fe 2 O 3.

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Nomenclature

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Nomenclature

Nomenclature

CHEM 140


Metals with one oxidation state

Metals With One Oxidation State

  • Na+: sodium

  • Mg2+: magnesium

  • Al3+: aluminum

  • aluminum chloride: AlCl3


Transition metals

Transition Metals

  • Have more than one oxidation state

    • Fe2+: iron(II)

    • Fe3+: iron(III)

    • Iron(II) sulfide: FeS

    • Iron(III) oxide: Fe2O3


Other names for transition metal ions

Other Names for Transition Metal Ions

  • Iron

    • Fe2+: ferrous

    • Fe3+: ferric

  • Copper

    • Cu+: cuprous or copper(I)

    • Cu2+: cupric or copper(II)

  • Mercury

    • Hg22+: mercurous or mercury(I)

    • Hg2+: mercuric or mercury(II)


Monatomic anions

Monatomic Anions

  • These take the –ide ending

    • Cl–: chloride

    • S2–: sulfide

  • Examples

    • Li3N: lithium nitride

    • Cu2S: copper(I) sulfide


Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic Ions

  • Start by memorizing these:

    • carbonate: CO32–

    • nitrate: NO3–

    • phosphate: PO43–

    • sulfate: SO42–

    • perchlorate: ClO4–


Derived names

Derived Names

  • Remove oxygen from –ate to become –ic

    • NO3–: nitrate. NO2–: nitrite

    • Charge does not change

  • Add H+ to change the name

    • CO32–: carbonate

    • HCO32–: hydrogen carbonate or bicarbonate


Derived names1

Derived Names

  • PO43–: phosphate

    • HPO42–: hydrogen phosphate

    • H2PO4–: dihydrogen phosphate

  • Analogies with metals

    • ClO4– and MnO4– (group 7A and 7B)

    • SO42– and CrO42– (group 6A and 6B)


The chlorine series

The Chlorine Series

  • ClO4–: perchlorate

  • ClO3–: chlorate

  • ClO2–: chlorite

  • ClO–: hypochlorite

  • Cl–: chloride


Polyatomic ide anions

Polyatomic –ide Anions

  • OH–: hydroxide

  • CN–: cyanide

  • O22–: peroxide

    • Na2O2: sodium peroxide

    • KCN: potassium cyanide


Oddball ions

Oddball Ions

  • NH4+: ammonium

  • Hg22+: mercury(I) or mercurous

  • Cr2O72–: dichromate

  • H–: hydride

  • SCN–: thiocyanate


Naming acids

Naming Acids

  • -ate becomes –ic

    • HClO3: chloric acid

    • HClO4: perchloric acid

    • H3PO4: phosphoric acid

  • -ite becomes –ous

    • HNO2: nitrous acid

  • -ide becomes hydro…ic

    • HBr: hydrobromic acid


Acids are solutions in water

Acids Are Solutions in Water

  • HCl

    • Pure form is a gas: hydrogen chloride

    • Aqueous solution is an acid: hydrochloric acid

  • HCN

    • Pure form: hydrogen cyanide

    • Aqueous solution: hydrocyanic acid


Naming other hydrogen compounds

Naming Other Hydrogen Compounds

  • H2S: hydrogen sulfide

  • H2O: water

  • H2O2: hydrogen peroxide

  • NH3: ammonia

  • PH3: phosphine

  • CH4: methane

  • SiH4: silane

  • B2H6: diborane


Other names

Other Names

  • P4O10: phosphorous pentoxide

  • CuSO4: copper sulfate

  • Some transition metals have only one oxidation state:

    • Ag+, Zn2+, Cd2+: no need for (I), (II), etc.


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