Part ii chapter 8
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Part II Chapter 8. Differential Association Sutherland and Cressey. Part 2: Ch. 8. Differential Association. Part 2: Ch. 8. Criminal behavior is learned Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication

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Differential Association Sutherland and Cressey

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Part ii chapter 8

Part II

Chapter 8

Differential AssociationSutherland and Cressey

Part 2: Ch. 8


Differential association sutherland and cressey

Differential Association

Part 2: Ch. 8

Criminal behavior is learned

Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication

The principal part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups


Differential association sutherland and cressey

Differential Association

Part 2: Ch. 8

When criminal behavior is learned, the learned includes

(a) techniques of committing the crime, which are sometimes very complicated, sometimes very simple;

(b) the specific direction of motive, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes


Differential association sutherland and cressey

Differential Association

Part 2: Ch. 8

The specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfavorable

A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law


Differential association sutherland and cressey

Differential Association

Part 2: Ch. 8

Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity

The process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all of the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning


Differential association sutherland and cressey

Differential Association

Part 2: Ch. 8

While criminal behavior is an expression of general needs and values

It is not explained by those general needs and values, since noncriminal behavior is an expression of the same needs and values.


Part ii chapter 9

Part II

Chapter 9

Control TheoryHirschi


I elements of the bond

I. Elements of the Bond


A attachment

A. Attachment

Part 2: Ch. 9

Refers to an individual’s bonds to others

Attachment to others part of why we do or do not care about norm violations

If one does not care about the expectations of others, he or she is free to deviate


B commitment

B. Commitment

Part 2: Ch. 9

  • Investment of time, energy, self in a certain pursuit:

    • Getting an education, building up a business, acquiring a reputation

  • Risking the loss of such investments by deviance or crime and facing punishments (time in prison) seems irrational

  • The concept of commitment assumes that the organization of society is such that most persons interests would be endangered if they engaged in crime


C involvement

C. Involvement

Part 2: Ch. 9

  • Involvement in conventional activities limits time, energy and opportunity to engage in deviant or criminal activity;

    • “Idle hands are the devil’s workshop”

  • Example: recreational programs and facilities to reduce juvenile delinquency


D belief

D. Belief

Part 2: Ch. 9

Control theory assumes existence of a common value system within a society or group

Individual belief in set of values is variable: the greater a person’s acceptance of moral authority for a set of norms, the less like they are to violate them

Control theory differs from cultural deviance theory in this assumption of consensus within a society or group over a set of values


Review questions

Review Questions

Part 2: Ch. 9

What kind of deviance and delinquency does Hirschi focus on and what are some of his assumptions?

How does his theory differ from structural perspective(s) of deviance?


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