Loudspeakers
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Loudspeakers. Assignment #1 Ece 5320 Mechatronics By Clint Ellis. Outline. References Major Applications Basics. References. Rossing, T. (2002) The Science of Sound. San Francisco:Addison Wesley The Speaker Building Page, 06 Mar 2004 http://www.speakerbuilding.com/

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Loudspeakers

Loudspeakers

Assignment #1

Ece 5320 Mechatronics

By

Clint Ellis


Outline

Outline

  • References

  • Major Applications

  • Basics


References

References

  • Rossing, T. (2002) The Science of Sound. San Francisco:Addison Wesley

  • The Speaker Building Page, 06 Mar 2004 http://www.speakerbuilding.com/

  • Moy, Chu Notes on DIY Electrostatic Headphones http://headwize2.powerpill.org/projects/showproj.php?file=cmoy3_prj.htm


Major applications

Major Applications

  • Noise elimination

  • Sound reproduction

  • Sound amplification


Loudspeaker types

Loudspeaker Types

  • Electrostatic Speakers

    • Similar to a condenser microphone design

  • Air-motion Transformers

    • Diaphragm ran

  • Ribbon Speakers

    • Similar to a Ribbon microphone design

  • Planar Speakers

    • Flat shape but inefficient

  • Cylindrical Radiators

    • Used in stereophonic systems


Magnet types

Magnet types

  • The three main types of magnets used in speaker construction

Figure from “The Science of Sound” Rossing

From left to right: A slug magnet, ring magnet, “W” magnet


Electomagnetic speaker structor

Electomagnetic Speaker Structor

  • The left side is an exploded view of the construction of a speaker

  • The right is the view of the magnet and voice coil structors

Figure from “The Science of Sound” Rossing


Tweeter horn types

tweeter horn types

  • A straight horn

  • A folded horn

Figure from “The Science of Sound” Rossing


Tweeter types

Tweeter types

  • A cone type tweeter

  • A diffraction horn

  • Multicellular horn

  • Dome tweeter

Figure from “The Science of sound” Rossing


Low frequency horn design

Low-Frequency horn design

  • Left is sectional top view of design

  • Right is the sectional side view

Figure from “The Science of Sound” Rossing


Equivalent circuit for a loudspeaker

Equivalent Circuit for a Loudspeaker

  • R2 represents the drivers suspension loss

  • R3 represents the internal energy absorption

  • C1 represents the compliance of the driver suspension

  • C2 represents the compliance of the air in the enclosure

  • L1 represents the mass of the speaker cone, voice coil and air load


Electrostatic speakers

Electrostatic Speakers

Advantages:

1. Smooth response at high frequency2. Can be small (as in headphone assembly)3. Cheaply manufactured

Disadvantages:

1. Inefficient at low frequencies2. High input impedance


Planar speakers

Planar Speakers

Advantages:

1. Flat space saving design2. Can be constructed as both magnetic and electrostatic

Disadvantages:

1. Inefficient at all frequencies2. Hard to find due to unpopularity


Loudspeakers

Cylindrical Radiators

Advantages:

1. Radiate equally in all directions 2. Can be placed anywhere in a room Disadvantages:

1. Interference effects distort when used in stereophonic systems


Loudspeakers

Ribbon Speakers

Advantages:

1. Clear mid and high frequency 2. Easy construction Disadvantages:

1. Bidirectionallity causes sound cancellation2. Weak low frequency because of bidirectionallity


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