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3 Forms of Energy Transfer. 1. conduction transfer of energy (mostly in solids) by collisions of particles 2 . convection transfer of energy by currents moving through liquids or gases (caused by density differences ) 3 . radiation

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3 forms of energy transfer
3 Forms of Energy Transfer
  • 1. conduction
    • transfer of energy (mostly in solids) by collisions of particles
  • 2. convection
    • transfer of energy by currents moving through liquids or gases (caused by density differences)
  • 3. radiation
    • transfer of energy through empty space (no molecules needed)
        • Ex. energy from the Sun
recycling of materials amongst earth s spheres
Recycling of Materials Amongst Earth’s Spheres
  • Earth is constantly recycling materials
    • maintains an overall balance through biogeochemical cycles
      • water
      • carbon
      • etc.
the water cycle
The Water Cycle

1. precipitation

  • water that falls from clouds to Earth
    • drizzle, rain, snow, sleet, hail
slide5
2. infiltration
  • water soaks into soil from the surface
  • 3. ground water
    • water under the ground; soil is saturated
slide6
4. evaporation
  • warmth from Sun causes liquid water to turn into water vapor

evaporation

  • 5. transpiration
    • when plants give off water vapor through stomata in their leaves
slide7
6. condensation
  • water vapor cools until it turns back into liquid
    • forming clouds, fog, or dew

condensation

groundwater pollution
Groundwater Pollution
  • pollutants in soil carried by infiltration into groundwater
    • oil
    • nitrates & phosphates
      • from fertilizers
    • pesticides
    • farm wastes
    • sewage
    • salt
      • to melt ice
    • chemicals & hazardous wastes
    • and more…
  • can be a reason for site to be designated a “brownfield”
  • remediation (clean up )  expensive
    • prevention  best
changes in co 2 climate
Changes in CO2 & Climate
  • CO2levels have risen steadily since mid-1800s
    • primarily due to human activities
      • combustionof fossil fuels
        • coal
        • gasoline
        • natural gas
      • deforestation
        • decreased photosynthesis
slide11

Changes in CO2 & Climate

  • avg. global temps have  ~1°C since late 1800s
  • Possible effects:
    • sea-level rise
    • more/stronger storms/hurricanes
    • more frequent heat waves/droughts
    • relocation of major crop-growing areas
common air pollutants
Common Air Pollutants
  • air pollutant
    • any airborne gas or particle concentrated enough to harm people or the environment
    • natural causes
      • volcanoes
      • forest fires
    • human causes
      • combustion of fossil fuels (automobiles, factories, etc.)
acid rain
Acid Rain
  • pollutants (SOX& NOX) react w/ H2O vapor in air
  • acidity measured using pH
  • effects
    • harm to plants/animals
    • damage to structures made

of limestone/marble

      • remember… carbonates bubble in acid
weathering
Weathering
  • breakdown of rocks at Earth’s surface
  • 2 types:
    • chemical
    • mechanical(physical)
chemical weathering
Chemical Weathering
  • rock is broken down by chemical action
    • changed into new substances
  • agents include acids & oxygen
chemical weathering1
Chemical Weathering
  • rainwater  naturally acidic
    • CO2dissolved in rainwater  carbonic acid
      • can weather carbonate-based rocks
        • ex. marble & limestone (CaCO3)
slide17

other rocks are very resistant to acid and do not weather easily

    • quartz-based rocks
      • ex. quartzite & sandstone (SiO2)
mechanical physical weathering
Mechanical (Physical) Weathering
  • rock is split, cracked, or broken into smaller pieces of the same material
    • NOT changed into new substances
the rock cycle

Rock Cycle Movie

The Rock Cycle
  • continuous process causing rocks to change from one form to another
3 major classes of rocks

BrainPop 3 Types of Rocks

3 Major Classes of Rocks
  • sedimentary
    • formed by compaction & cementing of layers of sediments
  • metamorphic
    • formed by effects of heat & pressure on other rocks
  • igneous
    • formed by solidification of hot, molten rock
sedimentary rocks
made of sediments

cover most of Earth’s surface

Sedimentary Rocks
metamorphic rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
  • metamorphism
    • process by which a rock’s structure is changed by pressure & heat
examples of metamorphic rocks what they formed from
Examples of Metamorphic Rocks & What They Formed From
  • granite  gneiss
  • shale  slate  phyllite  schist
  • limestone  marble
  • sandstone  quartzite
igneous rocks
Igneous Rocks
  • form due to MELTING & solidification
    • Intrusive
      • magma cools slowly deep insideEarth
        • crystals  medium to coarse texture
    • Extrusive
      • lava cools quickly on/above surface of Earth
        • crystals very small or not seen at all
convection currents in magma
Convection Currents in Magma
  • drives plate tectonics

Convection in the Mantle Animation

what is plate tectonics
What Is Plate Tectonics?
  • theory that describes formation, movements, & interactions of Earth’s lithospheric plates
types of plate boundaries
Types of Plate Boundaries
  • Earth’s lithosphere is broken in to large plates
    • movement @ plate boundaries determines type
      • divergent
      • convergent
      • transform
divergent boundaries
plates move apart

most are along ocean floor

spreading @ mid-ocean ridges  molten rock forces through cracks (rifts) in valley

Divergent Boundaries
convergent boundaries
Convergent Boundaries
  • plates move closer together
transform plate boundary

Transform Boundary--San Andreas Fault Animation

Transform Plate Boundary
  • plates slide past each other at fault
    • stress released  earthquake
    • Ex. California—San Andreas Fault

N

locations of earthquakes volcanoes

Ring

of

Fire

Locations of Earthquakes & Volcanoes
  • occur in concentrated areas @ plate boundaries
    • strain builds up  earthquakes
    • molten rock rises  volcanic activity
      • Pacific Ocean  Ring of Fire

Plates & Volcanoes Video

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