3 forms of energy transfer
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3 Forms of Energy Transfer. 1. conduction transfer of energy (mostly in solids) by collisions of particles 2 . convection transfer of energy by currents moving through liquids or gases (caused by density differences ) 3 . radiation

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3 Forms of Energy Transfer

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3 forms of energy transfer

3 Forms of Energy Transfer

  • 1. conduction

    • transfer of energy (mostly in solids) by collisions of particles

  • 2. convection

    • transfer of energy by currents moving through liquids or gases (caused by density differences)

  • 3. radiation

    • transfer of energy through empty space (no molecules needed)

      • Ex. energy from the Sun


Recycling of materials amongst earth s spheres

Recycling of Materials Amongst Earth’s Spheres

  • Earth is constantly recycling materials

    • maintains an overall balance through biogeochemical cycles

      • water

      • carbon

      • etc.


Solar energy drives the water cycle

Solar Energy Drives the Water Cycle

condensation


The water cycle

The Water Cycle

1. precipitation

  • water that falls from clouds to Earth

    • drizzle, rain, snow, sleet, hail


3 forms of energy transfer

2. infiltration

  • water soaks into soil from the surface

  • 3. ground water

    • water under the ground; soil is saturated


3 forms of energy transfer

4. evaporation

  • warmth from Sun causes liquid water to turn into water vapor

evaporation

  • 5. transpiration

    • when plants give off water vapor through stomata in their leaves


3 forms of energy transfer

6. condensation

  • water vapor cools until it turns back into liquid

    • forming clouds, fog, or dew

condensation


Groundwater pollution

Groundwater Pollution

  • pollutants in soil carried by infiltration into groundwater

    • oil

    • nitrates & phosphates

      • from fertilizers

    • pesticides

    • farm wastes

    • sewage

    • salt

      • to melt ice

    • chemicals & hazardous wastes

    • and more…

  • can be a reason for site to be designated a “brownfield”

  • remediation (clean up )  expensive

    • prevention  best


Carbon cycle

Carbon Cycle


Changes in co 2 climate

Changes in CO2 & Climate

  • CO2levels have risen steadily since mid-1800s

    • primarily due to human activities

      • combustionof fossil fuels

        • coal

        • gasoline

        • natural gas

      • deforestation

        • decreased photosynthesis


3 forms of energy transfer

Changes in CO2 & Climate

  • avg. global temps have  ~1°C since late 1800s

  • Possible effects:

    • sea-level rise

    • more/stronger storms/hurricanes

    • more frequent heat waves/droughts

    • relocation of major crop-growing areas


Common air pollutants

Common Air Pollutants

  • air pollutant

    • any airborne gas or particle concentrated enough to harm people or the environment

    • natural causes

      • volcanoes

      • forest fires

    • human causes

      • combustion of fossil fuels (automobiles, factories, etc.)


Acid rain

Acid Rain

  • pollutants (SOX& NOX) react w/ H2O vapor in air

  • acidity measured using pH

  • effects

    • harm to plants/animals

    • damage to structures made

      of limestone/marble

      • remember… carbonates bubble in acid


Weathering

Weathering

  • breakdown of rocks at Earth’s surface

  • 2 types:

    • chemical

    • mechanical(physical)


Chemical weathering

Chemical Weathering

  • rock is broken down by chemical action

    • changed into new substances

  • agents include acids & oxygen


Chemical weathering1

Chemical Weathering

  • rainwater  naturally acidic

    • CO2dissolved in rainwater  carbonic acid

      • can weather carbonate-based rocks

        • ex. marble & limestone (CaCO3)


3 forms of energy transfer

  • other rocks are very resistant to acid and do not weather easily

    • quartz-based rocks

      • ex. quartzite & sandstone (SiO2)


Mechanical physical weathering

Mechanical (Physical) Weathering

  • rock is split, cracked, or broken into smaller pieces of the same material

    • NOT changed into new substances


The rock cycle

Rock Cycle Movie

The Rock Cycle

  • continuous process causing rocks to change from one form to another


3 major classes of rocks

BrainPop 3 Types of Rocks

3 Major Classes of Rocks

  • sedimentary

    • formed by compaction & cementing of layers of sediments

  • metamorphic

    • formed by effects of heat & pressure on other rocks

  • igneous

    • formed by solidification of hot, molten rock


Sedimentary rocks

made of sediments

cover most of Earth’s surface

Sedimentary Rocks


Metamorphic rocks

Metamorphic Rocks

  • metamorphism

    • process by which a rock’s structure is changed by pressure & heat


Examples of metamorphic rocks what they formed from

Examples of Metamorphic Rocks & What They Formed From

  • granite  gneiss

  • shale  slate  phyllite  schist

  • limestone  marble

  • sandstone  quartzite


Igneous rocks

Igneous Rocks

  • form due to MELTING & solidification

    • Intrusive

      • magma cools slowly deep insideEarth

        • crystals  medium to coarse texture

    • Extrusive

      • lava cools quickly on/above surface of Earth

        • crystals very small or not seen at all


Convection currents in magma

Convection Currents in Magma

  • drives plate tectonics

Convection in the Mantle Animation


What is plate tectonics

What Is Plate Tectonics?

  • theory that describes formation, movements, & interactions of Earth’s lithospheric plates


Types of plate boundaries

Types of Plate Boundaries

  • Earth’s lithosphere is broken in to large plates

    • movement @ plate boundaries determines type

      • divergent

      • convergent

      • transform


Divergent boundaries

plates move apart

most are along ocean floor

spreading @ mid-ocean ridges  molten rock forces through cracks (rifts) in valley

Divergent Boundaries


Mid ocean ridge

Mid-Atlantic Ridge

Mid-Ocean Ridge


Convergent boundaries

Convergent Boundaries

  • plates move closer together


Transform plate boundary

Transform Boundary--San Andreas Fault Animation

Transform Plate Boundary

  • plates slide past each other at fault

    • stress released  earthquake

    • Ex. California—San Andreas Fault

N


Locations of earthquakes volcanoes

Ring

of

Fire

Locations of Earthquakes & Volcanoes

  • occur in concentrated areas @ plate boundaries

    • strain builds up  earthquakes

    • molten rock rises  volcanic activity

      • Pacific Ocean  Ring of Fire

Plates & Volcanoes Video


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