Us history to 1865
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US History to 1865. Chapter 3: Expansion 1650-1750. Concepts. French & Dutch Roles in North America Further expansion of the British 17 th century crises During the 18 th century, how did society & economy in the Colonies change ? Views on class & gender during this period. Unrest.

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US History to 1865

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Us history to 1865

US History to 1865

Chapter 3: Expansion 1650-1750


Concepts

Concepts

  • French & Dutch Roles in North America

  • Further expansion of the British

  • 17th century crises

  • During the 18th century, how did society & economy in the Colonies change ?

  • Views on class & gender during this period


Unrest

Unrest

  • Pueblo Revolt of 1680: anti-Spanish uprising in New Mexico

  • Spanish Inquisition spilled over from Spain to NA > religious resurgence

  • Local priests active missionaries – used harsh methods

  • Pueblo named Popé led uprising > anti-European

  • Pueblos briefly united


Unrest1

Unrest

  • Religious dissent

  • Economic gaps

  • Slaves v free

  • Europeans expanded their holdings

  • 1. Sp took FL, TX, NM, CA, AZ, NV

  • 2. Dutch took NY

  • 3. Fr expand

  • > Br – stable agricultural colonies

  • Dut & Fr – trading posts


Dutch empire

Dutch Empire

  • 1609: Henry Hudson – Br captain working for Dutch East India Co – went north to find the Northwest Passage – dec NY belonged to Holland in 1614 > named New Holland – Dutch had trading center @ Fort Orange (Albany)

  • Dutch West India Co – handled all New World trade w Holland > arranged purchase of Manhattan Island > NYC


Dutch empire1

Dutch Empire

  • Dutch growth – at home, prosperous, much bus, ed

  • Important empire – South Africa, Indonesia

  • Netherlands – sophisticated society – even more levels of liberty

  • - press - full religious freedom

  • Many refugees in Hol – escaped relig persecution

  • 1/2m immigrants > made Hol stronger; people to settle colonies


Dutch empire2

Dutch Empire

  • Colonial rule

  • - D want trade – not to stay & control

  • - thought it better to treat local people well

  • - did not want to behave like Spanish – Spain once ruled Hol

  • D had some conflicts w Native Americans, although D paid for land before using it

  • D friendly w Iroquois


Dutch empire3

Dutch Empire

  • D fought w Algonquians > NY Governor William Kieft did steal land

  • More Indians died, but also some colonists, incl Hutchinson

  • Freedom in New Holland (cap Amsterdam)

  • DWI Co knew that trade at risk unless New Holl run like military dictatorship > built forts


Freedom in dutch empire

Freedom in Dutch Empire

  • New Holl

  • - no elected officials, but citizen advisors

  • - women – legal rights, social freedom > own property, business

  • Slavery

  • - slaves had legal protection

  • D major slavers – brought Africans to NY


Freedom

Freedom

  • Slavery

  • - slaves in NY worked farms, craftwork – not fieldwork

  • “half-freedom” status – tenant farmers paid Co for privilege – used as labor when Co required


Freedom1

Freedom

  • Jews in D North Amer

  • - mainly from Sp

  • - merchants, bankers

  • - 1654: more J immigrants from Latin Amer

  • - Gov Peter Stuyvesant wanted to expel them from NY – no trust

  • - Co reversed order – wanted J there – they invested


Freedom2

Freedom

  • Settlers – Co wanted more

  • - opened fur trade

  • - cheap land, farm animals to settlers

  • - freedom of worship

  • - significant grants to “patroons” (patrons) > brought in labor

  • - patroons respected Indians; lived like feudal lords


Freedom3

Freedom

  • New Holl not fully democratic

  • Stuyvesant not democratic

  • Patroon named K. van Rensselaer challenged farmers over land – some farmers came from NE, where small-holders well-est > rebellion

  • D expansion

  • Exported 1 m – all ethnicities

  • Est Delaware (DE) 1638


French empire

French Empire

  • Quebec Can – est 1608 by Samuel de Champlain – worked for fur trading co

  • 1643: MS River initially charted by Fr. Jacques Marquette & trader, Louis Joliet

  • 1681: LaSalle took MS Valley for France

  • Br & Fr – Br took coasts; Fr took large tracts of land along rivers (St. Lawrence, Ohio, MS)


French empire1

French Empire

  • 50ys – New France run by a trading company – Co of New France – later ^^ - new co ~ more govt control

  • “seigneuries” – noble grants – feudal holdings – holder expected to bring labor

  • “engages” – indentured servants – most wanted to leave North Amer when finished

  • Mostly men


French empire2

French Empire

  • Only 250 families went to Canada

  • Smaller white pop than in Br colonies

  • Fr govt pleased – did not want to lose people at home – Fr had the largest army on earth

  • Can – for the criminals

  • Huguenots (Fr Protestants) persecuted in Fr > fled – but not to Can

  • Can – Catholic territory


French native americans

French & Native Americans

  • Fr needed Native Americans – helped obtain pelts

  • Fr no enslave Nat Amer

  • Fr treated them fairly

  • Indians – glad Fr were not taking land, staying

  • Fr & Indians – treaties, incl military

  • Fr sent Jesuits to convert – more successful because they did not criticize local beliefs, customs


French native americans1

French & Native Americans

  • Fr ^^ local culture, life

  • - disease

  • - Indians became traders, too

  • - Indians involved in conflicts

  • - 1640s: Dutch-allied Iroquois destroyed Fr-allied Huron

  • - Intermarriage > metis


French native americans2

French & Native Americans

  • ^^ local life

  • - Indians took up some Eur ways

  • # clothes

  • # marriage, family customs

  • # learned French

  • - Catholic Native Americans could immigrate to France

  • - many more Fr became Indianized


British expansion

British Expansion

  • Protect their colonial trade

  • Mercantilism ~ economic nationalism

  • Monopolies – 1 co controls entire business/industry – that was allowed, encouraged

  • Br earned more than they spent

  • Br exported more than they imported – favorable balance of trade


British expansion1

British Expansion

  • Business key to Br economy > bus = power

  • 1650: Cromwell ~ dictator of England – policies

  • - colonialism

  • - evangelical Protestantism

  • - build bus

  • 1651: Navigation Acts – Br decl it controlled New World trade, oceans


British trade policies

British Trade Policies

  • Navigation Act 1651

  • “enumerated goods” – Br govt had interest in most profitable products – tobacco, sugar, salt

  • Those items could only be carried in Br ships

  • Only Br ports could be ports of origin for those goods

  • Customs duties

  • Br shipbuilding became strong industry > New England became shipbuilding center


New york

New York

  • From Dutch to British colony

  • 1660: Charles II new K of Engl

  • Promoted imperialism

  • Created Royal Africa Co – to control slave trade

  • 1664: Anglo-Dutch War – D lost – Br took New Holland

  • New Holl ruled by Duke of York, K’s brother – New York


New york1

New York

  • NY – important trade, military

  • Anglo-Dutch treaty – for NY

  • 1. keep relig tolerance – NY already multi-ethnic

  • 2. Br ^^ marriage laws – wives would have less power

  • 3. men, esp sons, get more wealth

  • 4. fewer rights for African American freemen > D gave free blacks econ freedom – Br stopped this


New york2

New York

  • Br & D had given large holdings to few families > elites of NY

  • D made 5 Iroquois Nations strong – Br continued this

  • 1670s: Br Gov of NY, Sir Edmund Andros, dev the Covenant Chain > treaties to link colonial govt w Nat Amer chiefs


New york3

New York

  • Iroquois – wiped out their competition – helped Br in battle w Fr

  • Andros recog Iro claims to land

  • 1680: Iro under attack by other tribes > Iro declared their neutrality – but played politics – manipulated tribes – bribes, loans – made $$ in furs


Ny liberty

NY & Liberty

  • Colonists wanted “liberties of Englishmen” – wanted to vote on taxes

  • D never had assemblies in NY

  • Duke of York did not want to share power

  • Long Island – part of NY – many colonists originally from New Engl – especially discontented


Ny liberty1

NY & Liberty

  • 1683: York agreed to an elected group of white freemen to est assembly

  • Assembly to create a charter

  • Elections every 3 yr

  • Voting: male property owners

  • Trial by jury

  • Property rights

  • Relig tolerance for Protestants

  • Made NY more Engl than D


Carolina

Carolina

  • 1663: Carolina claimed by Br – Charles II wanted to block the Sp in FL

  • West Indian colonists (Barbados) interested – tried ranching

  • Carolina settlers aligned w Nat Amer > attacked FL – enslaved captives – started Car slave trade as exporters

  • Prosperous start


Carolina1

Carolina

  • Fundamental Constitution of Carolina of 1669

  • Est feudalism = gentry > serfs > slaves

  • Elected assembly & freedom of faith – only to make Car popular

  • Bonus grant to families

  • Full constitution never put into place

  • Slavery harshly enforced

  • Later, rice became crop – more need for slaves


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