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US History to 1865. Chapter 3: Expansion 1650-1750. Concepts. French & Dutch Roles in North America Further expansion of the British 17 th century crises During the 18 th century, how did society & economy in the Colonies change ? Views on class & gender during this period. Unrest.

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us history to 1865

US History to 1865

Chapter 3: Expansion 1650-1750

concepts
Concepts
  • French & Dutch Roles in North America
  • Further expansion of the British
  • 17th century crises
  • During the 18th century, how did society & economy in the Colonies change ?
  • Views on class & gender during this period
unrest
Unrest
  • Pueblo Revolt of 1680: anti-Spanish uprising in New Mexico
  • Spanish Inquisition spilled over from Spain to NA > religious resurgence
  • Local priests active missionaries – used harsh methods
  • Pueblo named Popé led uprising > anti-European
  • Pueblos briefly united
unrest1
Unrest
  • Religious dissent
  • Economic gaps
  • Slaves v free
  • Europeans expanded their holdings
  • 1. Sp took FL, TX, NM, CA, AZ, NV
  • 2. Dutch took NY
  • 3. Fr expand
  • > Br – stable agricultural colonies
  • Dut & Fr – trading posts
dutch empire
Dutch Empire
  • 1609: Henry Hudson – Br captain working for Dutch East India Co – went north to find the Northwest Passage – dec NY belonged to Holland in 1614 > named New Holland – Dutch had trading center @ Fort Orange (Albany)
  • Dutch West India Co – handled all New World trade w Holland > arranged purchase of Manhattan Island > NYC
dutch empire1
Dutch Empire
  • Dutch growth – at home, prosperous, much bus, ed
  • Important empire – South Africa, Indonesia
  • Netherlands – sophisticated society – even more levels of liberty
  • - press - full religious freedom
  • Many refugees in Hol – escaped relig persecution
  • 1/2m immigrants > made Hol stronger; people to settle colonies
dutch empire2
Dutch Empire
  • Colonial rule
  • - D want trade – not to stay & control
  • - thought it better to treat local people well
  • - did not want to behave like Spanish – Spain once ruled Hol
  • D had some conflicts w Native Americans, although D paid for land before using it
  • D friendly w Iroquois
dutch empire3
Dutch Empire
  • D fought w Algonquians > NY Governor William Kieft did steal land
  • More Indians died, but also some colonists, incl Hutchinson
  • Freedom in New Holland (cap Amsterdam)
  • DWI Co knew that trade at risk unless New Holl run like military dictatorship > built forts
freedom in dutch empire
Freedom in Dutch Empire
  • New Holl
  • - no elected officials, but citizen advisors
  • - women – legal rights, social freedom > own property, business
  • Slavery
  • - slaves had legal protection
  • D major slavers – brought Africans to NY
freedom
Freedom
  • Slavery
  • - slaves in NY worked farms, craftwork – not fieldwork
  • “half-freedom” status – tenant farmers paid Co for privilege – used as labor when Co required
freedom1
Freedom
  • Jews in D North Amer
  • - mainly from Sp
  • - merchants, bankers
  • - 1654: more J immigrants from Latin Amer
  • - Gov Peter Stuyvesant wanted to expel them from NY – no trust
  • - Co reversed order – wanted J there – they invested
freedom2
Freedom
  • Settlers – Co wanted more
  • - opened fur trade
  • - cheap land, farm animals to settlers
  • - freedom of worship
  • - significant grants to “patroons” (patrons) > brought in labor
  • - patroons respected Indians; lived like feudal lords
freedom3
Freedom
  • New Holl not fully democratic
  • Stuyvesant not democratic
  • Patroon named K. van Rensselaer challenged farmers over land – some farmers came from NE, where small-holders well-est > rebellion
  • D expansion
  • Exported 1 m – all ethnicities
  • Est Delaware (DE) 1638
french empire
French Empire
  • Quebec Can – est 1608 by Samuel de Champlain – worked for fur trading co
  • 1643: MS River initially charted by Fr. Jacques Marquette & trader, Louis Joliet
  • 1681: LaSalle took MS Valley for France
  • Br & Fr – Br took coasts; Fr took large tracts of land along rivers (St. Lawrence, Ohio, MS)
french empire1
French Empire
  • 50ys – New France run by a trading company – Co of New France – later ^^ - new co ~ more govt control
  • “seigneuries” – noble grants – feudal holdings – holder expected to bring labor
  • “engages” – indentured servants – most wanted to leave North Amer when finished
  • Mostly men
french empire2
French Empire
  • Only 250 families went to Canada
  • Smaller white pop than in Br colonies
  • Fr govt pleased – did not want to lose people at home – Fr had the largest army on earth
  • Can – for the criminals
  • Huguenots (Fr Protestants) persecuted in Fr > fled – but not to Can
  • Can – Catholic territory
french native americans
French & Native Americans
  • Fr needed Native Americans – helped obtain pelts
  • Fr no enslave Nat Amer
  • Fr treated them fairly
  • Indians – glad Fr were not taking land, staying
  • Fr & Indians – treaties, incl military
  • Fr sent Jesuits to convert – more successful because they did not criticize local beliefs, customs
french native americans1
French & Native Americans
  • Fr ^^ local culture, life
  • - disease
  • - Indians became traders, too
  • - Indians involved in conflicts
  • - 1640s: Dutch-allied Iroquois destroyed Fr-allied Huron
  • - Intermarriage > metis
french native americans2
French & Native Americans
  • ^^ local life
  • - Indians took up some Eur ways
  • # clothes
  • # marriage, family customs
  • # learned French
  • - Catholic Native Americans could immigrate to France
  • - many more Fr became Indianized
british expansion
British Expansion
  • Protect their colonial trade
  • Mercantilism ~ economic nationalism
  • Monopolies – 1 co controls entire business/industry – that was allowed, encouraged
  • Br earned more than they spent
  • Br exported more than they imported – favorable balance of trade
british expansion1
British Expansion
  • Business key to Br economy > bus = power
  • 1650: Cromwell ~ dictator of England – policies
  • - colonialism
  • - evangelical Protestantism
  • - build bus
  • 1651: Navigation Acts – Br decl it controlled New World trade, oceans
british trade policies
British Trade Policies
  • Navigation Act 1651
  • “enumerated goods” – Br govt had interest in most profitable products – tobacco, sugar, salt
  • Those items could only be carried in Br ships
  • Only Br ports could be ports of origin for those goods
  • Customs duties
  • Br shipbuilding became strong industry > New England became shipbuilding center
new york
New York
  • From Dutch to British colony
  • 1660: Charles II new K of Engl
  • Promoted imperialism
  • Created Royal Africa Co – to control slave trade
  • 1664: Anglo-Dutch War – D lost – Br took New Holland
  • New Holl ruled by Duke of York, K’s brother – New York
new york1
New York
  • NY – important trade, military
  • Anglo-Dutch treaty – for NY
  • 1. keep relig tolerance – NY already multi-ethnic
  • 2. Br ^^ marriage laws – wives would have less power
  • 3. men, esp sons, get more wealth
  • 4. fewer rights for African American freemen > D gave free blacks econ freedom – Br stopped this
new york2
New York
  • Br & D had given large holdings to few families > elites of NY
  • D made 5 Iroquois Nations strong – Br continued this
  • 1670s: Br Gov of NY, Sir Edmund Andros, dev the Covenant Chain > treaties to link colonial govt w Nat Amer chiefs
new york3
New York
  • Iroquois – wiped out their competition – helped Br in battle w Fr
  • Andros recog Iro claims to land
  • 1680: Iro under attack by other tribes > Iro declared their neutrality – but played politics – manipulated tribes – bribes, loans – made $$ in furs
ny liberty
NY & Liberty
  • Colonists wanted “liberties of Englishmen” – wanted to vote on taxes
  • D never had assemblies in NY
  • Duke of York did not want to share power
  • Long Island – part of NY – many colonists originally from New Engl – especially discontented
ny liberty1
NY & Liberty
  • 1683: York agreed to an elected group of white freemen to est assembly
  • Assembly to create a charter
  • Elections every 3 yr
  • Voting: male property owners
  • Trial by jury
  • Property rights
  • Relig tolerance for Protestants
  • Made NY more Engl than D
carolina
Carolina
  • 1663: Carolina claimed by Br – Charles II wanted to block the Sp in FL
  • West Indian colonists (Barbados) interested – tried ranching
  • Carolina settlers aligned w Nat Amer > attacked FL – enslaved captives – started Car slave trade as exporters
  • Prosperous start
carolina1
Carolina
  • Fundamental Constitution of Carolina of 1669
  • Est feudalism = gentry > serfs > slaves
  • Elected assembly & freedom of faith – only to make Car popular
  • Bonus grant to families
  • Full constitution never put into place
  • Slavery harshly enforced
  • Later, rice became crop – more need for slaves
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